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UNIT 2 GIVING DIRECTIONS
Lesson B : Grammar When changing direct speech into indirect
Reported Speech When changing direct speech into indirect speech, we have to take care of the following changes:
Lesson B Examples : Direct : Someone says, “ I’ve eaten lunch.”
I Tense 1) The tense does not change if the reporting verb is in the present, , present perfect or future Examples : Direct : Someone says, “ I’ve eaten lunch.” Indirect : He says that he has eaten lunch. Direct : someone says, “ I enjoyed it.” Indirect : He says that he enjoyed it.
Lesson B When the reporting verb is in the past form
(said, told) but reports or tells about things as a \ general truth. Examples : Direct : He said, “Nitroglycerine is explosive.” Indirect : He said that nitroglycerine is explosive. Direct : She told me, “The earth moves round the sun. Indirect : She told me that the earth moves round the sun.
Lesson B 3) The verb form in indirect speech will be changed into the past when the reporting verb is in the past tense (said, told) Direct Speech Indirect Speech 1) present simple (V.1) ) past simple (V.2) present progressive ) past progressive (is/am/are + V1+.ing) (was/were + V1+.ing) present perfect ) past perfect (had + V.3) (has/have + V3)
Lesson B 3) The verb form in indirect speech will be changed into the past when the reporting verb is in the past tense (said, told) Direct Speech Indirect Speech 4) past simple (V.2) ) past perfect (had.+V.3) modal ) modal (will/can/may + V.1) (would/could/might+V.1) 6) must ) had to
Direct Speech Statement Indirect Speech Statement
Lesson B Examples : Direct Speech Statement Indirect Speech Statement Mac : I need a holiday. Sue : I’m going home. Ted : I don’t like tea. Ann : I have finished it. Sam : I spoke to them. Lyn : I went home early. Jim : I had seen the film before. Joe : I can swim. Lee : I will be at home. Pat : I may arrive later. Don : I could help you. Ron : You should see the film. Paul : I must go. Mac said that he needed a holiday. Sue said that she was going home. Ted said he didn’t like tea. Ann said she had finished it. Sam said he spoke to them. Sam said he had spoken to them. Lyn said she went home early. Lyn said she had gone home early. Jim said he had seen the film before. Joe said he could swim. Lee said he would be at home. Pat said she might arrive Don told me he could help me. Ron told me I should see the film. Paul said he must go. Paul said he had to go. he might arrive
Lesson B II. Pronouns, Adjective, Adverb
Pronoun (I, we, you and possessive adjective my, your must be changed Direct : Bill said, “I’m on holiday with my friend.” Indirect : Bill said that he was on holiday with his friend. 2) Adverb Adverbs telling about place and time must be changed in the indirect speech.
Lesson B Table for changing place and time
Direct Speech Statement Indirect Speech Statement here this/these now today tonight tomorrow Yesterday ago this + the place next week/year last week there that/those then that day that night the next day/the following day/on + name of day the day before/the previous day/on + bane of day before/previously that/the + place the following week/year the week before/the previous week
Lesson B Indirect Question
The rules about tense, pronoun, adjective and adverb can be applied to questions in the same way as they apply to statements but use different reporting verbs – ask / wonder/ want to know in indirect question. The policeman asked the men what they were doing. – The policeman asked the men, “What are you doing?” = The policeman asked the men what they were doing. – She asked, “How is your brother?” = She asked how my brother was.
Lesson B Wh- questions The subject and verb are not inverted in indirect speech – “What are you doing?” – The policeman asked the men what they were doing. subject verb She asked John who paid the waiter. subj. + V + obj.
Lesson B Speaker’s Words – “What do you want? – “Where does she live?”
– “Why did you say that?” Indirect Question – I asked what she wanted. – They asked where she lived. – She asked why I had said that.
Lesson B 2) Yes / no questions
Put if or whether before the indirect question ( subject + verb ), we don’t use Verb to do ( do, does or did ) Speaker’s Words Indirect Question – “Do you want a drink?” – He asked if I wanted a drink. – “Are you hungry?” – I wondered if she was hungry. – “Can you speak Chinese?” – They wanted to know whether I could speak Chinese.
Lesson B Example : – He asked me if (whether) I was tired.
After the word “ask” there is an object to follow ( me, him, John ) Example : – He asked me if (whether) I was tired. – I asked him who he was looking for. – She asked John who paid the waiter.
Lesson B We use indirect speech in reporting “order,
4) Order, request, warning, advice, invitation We use indirect speech in reporting “order, request, warning, advice and invitation” by using the pattern : verb + object + to infinitive. The reporting verb used in reporting these sentences are as follows : tell, ask, warn, advise, invite, remind.
Lesson B Speaker’s Words Indirect Speech – “Wait outside.”
– “Could you carry some bags, Jim?” – “Keep out of this room at all times.” – “You should phone the police? – “Would you like to have dinner with me?” – She told the man to wait outside. – I asked Jim to carry some bags. – He warned them to keep out of that room at all times. – I advised him to phone the police. – She invited me to have dinner with her.
Lesson B Speaker’s words Indirect speech
5) We use the pattern “verb + to infinitive” in reporting about “offer, promise, and threat”. Speaker’s words Indirect speech – Can I do the washing up? – I offered to do the washing up. – “I’ll phone the police!” – She threatened to phone the police.
Lesson B Speaker’s words Indirect speech
In reported requests, advice, commands, warns which are in negative form, use the pattern of “not + to infinitive” Speaker’s words Indirect speech – “Don’t be stupid.” – She told me not to be stupid. – “Don’t wait for me.” – She told me not to wait for her. – “Don’t go on holiday yet.” – She advised him not to go on holiday yet.
Lesson B – She forbade him to go. Note :
the verb “forbid” can be used without “not” because it has the negative meaning. – She forbade him to go.
Lesson B Note: The verbs in the same group of “say” can be used
without objects. admit deny report feel think answer indicate believe hope understand declare observe mention notice remark prove (etc.) The verbs in the same group of “tell” must have object. advise notify teach assure promise warn convince remind inform show (etc.)
Lesson B 1 2 3 Practice Choose the best answer.
“I have something to show you,” I said to her. I told her ……………… . “Are you leaving today or tomorrow morning?” said his secretary. He said, “My wife has just been made a judge.” He said that … . 1 2 3
Lesson B 4. “Will you practice English every day?” asked the teacher. The teacher asked the student … . “If you give me some wire, I’ll mend the fuse for you,” said my cousin. Ae asked … . 7. I don’t know when … . 8. The young man asked Mary … . 3 3 4 1 1
Lesson B 9. Ask him ……………… his job. 10. He said, “Get out of my way.”
11. No one knows where ……………… . 12. He asked me ……………… . 13. “Follow that car,” Nucha said to the taxi- driver. 14. “Don’t argue with you father,” I said. 15. “Wait for me at the bridge,” said the young man. The young man told her … . 16. “Let’s go to the cinema,” said Ann. 2 1 4 3 4 3 4
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