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Published byEric Heath Modified over 7 years ago
Apostrophes & Quotation Marks The Brenham Writing Room Created by D. Herring
Why Punctuate? Punctuation is used to clarify meaning. It is important to know how to properly use various punctuation marks, such as commas, semicolons, colons, apostrophes, quotation marks, parenthesis, dashes, & hyphens.
Apostrophes An apostrophe is primarily used to 1.Show ownership Sally’s car The dog’s bone 2.Indicate that something has been intentionally left out. –Don’t (contraction of do not) –Class of ’05 (20 in 2005 is left out)
Apostrophes continued When using an apostrophe to show ownership –Add ‘s to a singular noun to show ownership even if the noun already ends in s. Charles’s book s –If a noun is plural and ends in s, just add an apostrophe. Students’ exam scores –If the noun is plural but does not end in s, add ‘s. Men’s lockers
Apostrophes continued In a contraction, put an apostrophe where the letter or letters have been left out. –Please don’t be mad at me, but I can’t go with you. –She’ll go with you instead, and you’ll both have lots of fun. See list on pg. 491 of common contractions
Apostrophes continued You may occasionally use apostrophes with letters, numbers, and time. –Use ‘s to make letters & numbers plural. She made all A’s and B’s. How many 0’s do you have in this class? –Use ‘ or ‘s where time nouns are treated as if they possess. I have four weeks’ vacation coming to me. This year’s graduating class is huge.
Important Reminders Do not use an apostrophe to form the plural of a noun. –Incorrect: How many dog’s do you have? –Correct: My dog’s ears hang to the ground. Do not use an apostrophe with a possessive pronoun. –I: The book is her’s. –C: The book is hers. –I: The baby tiger cuddled next to it’s mother. –C: The baby tiger cuddled next to its mother.
“Quotation Marks” Quotation marks always appear in pairs! Two common uses of quotation marks: –In quotations –In titles
Quotation Marks continued A quotation is the report of a person’s words. –A direct quotation indicates exact words. Sally said, “Help me pick up these papers, please.” –An indirect quotation indicates a restatement of words. Sally asked me to please help her pick up her papers. Use quotation marks only for a direct quote, not an indirect quote.
Punctuation with Quotes When using punctuation with quotes, remember to use the following rules: –Place a comma after a phrase introducing a quotation: The child screamed, “I don’t want a shot.” –When a quote is interrupted, do the following: “I didn’t pass,” explained the student, “because I didn’t study.”
Punctuation with Quotes When a phrase comes after the quote, end the quote with a comma: –“I wish it were Friday,” she said. If a quotation ends with other punctuation, put it before the final quotation mark: –“What are you serving for dinner?” he asked.
Single Quotation Marks Use single quotation marks when one quotation is inside another: –The tutor told the professor, “Many of your students have told me ‘ my teacher grades too hard.’”
Titles Titles of magazine or newspaper articles, book chapters, short stories, essays, songs, and poems are put in quotation marks. Other titles (e.g., books, magazines or newspapers) are underlined or put in italics. Do not put your own paragraph or essay title in quotes!
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