Presentation on theme: "Capitalization and Punctuation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Capitalization and Punctuation Chapter 13, pg 216
2 Why?Writers use capital letters and punctuation marks to help the reader better understand what is written.
3 1st word of every sentence All sentences begin with capital letters.We enjoyed reading the book.Those girls finished cleaning the counter.
4 Specific things/places (proper nouns) Proper nouns begin with capital letters.Mrs. Clark asked if Amy would help.Uncle Rob took us to Texas.
5 Capital Letters I don’t need your help. The pronoun I is always capitalized.I don’t need your help.My aunt and I picked up the papers.
6 Capital LettersA capital letter begins the first, last, and any important word in the title of a book, magazine, song, movie, poem, or other work.Read the last chapter of Tom Sawyer.She saw Snow White when she was five years old.
7 To capitalize or not to capitalize Do!Don’tDays of the week, months of the year, holidaysLanguage, nationalities, races, religions, deities, sacred termsTitles: the first word and every important termFirst words of direct quotesHistorical events, periodsBrand namesSeasonsCommon nouns that refer to religious places like “church”Titles: do not capitalize articles (the), prepositions (of, under, OVER), or short connecting words (or, and)Directions (north, south, east and west- unless used in a place name)
8 Practice, exercise 2 pg 219Every tuesday, the general visits the hospital.On one level, the book the lord of the rings can be read as a fairy tale: on another level, the book can be read as a christian allegory.The golden gate bridge in san francisco may be the most beautiful bridge in the world.She is the sister of my french teacher.Tuesday, the general visits the hospital.The Lord of the RingsChristian allegory.Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco mayFrench teacher.
9 Punctuation: PeriodA complete sentence that makes a statement ends with a period.It’s your birthday. You blow out the candle.
10 Punctuation: Comma He was silent, lonely, and afraid. Or separate three or more items in a list or a phrase.He was silent, lonely, and afraid OrHe was silent, lonely and afraid.
11 Punctuation: Comma Miami, Florida January 6, 2003 separates items in an address or date.Miami, FloridaJanuary 6, 2003
12 Punctuation: Comma My favorite, old, green coat. Set off number of adjectives that modify a nounMy favorite, old, green coat.
13 Punctuation: CommaTo combine two simple sentences, use the comma and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS)The house was on fire, but I was determined not to leave.
14 Punctuation: Comma Surrounding word/phrase when the idea interrupts. Follow introductory words, expressions:In the beginning, I never thought I would.Surrounding word/phrase when the idea interrupts.Dave, who is a doctor, said to!
15 Punctuation: Comma Set off exact words in a dialog In numbers of one thousand+1,001Set off exact words in a dialog“I won’t,” he insisted, “do this!”When you need a short pauseTo John, Russel is the best!
16 Punctuation: Apostrophe To form possessiveThe teacher’s penTo form plurals (prevent confusion)he writes a’s and o’sWhen one+ letters omittedCan’t, shouldn’t, She’ll
17 Punctuation: Quotation Marks Quotation marks are used to identify the exact words of a speaker .President Bush said, “We will not tire, we will not falter, and we will not fail.”
18 Punctuation: Quotation Marks Quotes or Material copied word-for-word from a sourceTitles of short stories, one-act plays, poems, articles, songs, essays, chapters of booksWhen terms are referred to in a special way.
19 Punctuation: Semi-Colon To join 2 independent clausesHe decided to use the map; she decided to ask.In front of adverbial conjunction to join 2 sentencesHe decided to use a map; however, she decided to ask.In a series of items when the items themselves have commas!I had lunch with Linda, my best friend; Mrs. Armstrong, my English teacher; and Jan, my sister-in-law.
20 Punctuation: Colon Before a list of items Please order: five dozen pencils, twenty rulers, five tacks.In the salutation of business letterTo whom it may concern:Indicating time1:15pmBetween title and subtitle of a bookIn Plain English Please: A Rhetoric