Published byRodger Wiggins Modified over 7 years ago
Rules Apostrophes Examples 1. Use an apostrophe to replace
John doesn't want to wake up; he didn't go to sleep until 1:00 AM because he stayed up to watch the playoff game. 1. Use an apostrophe to replace omitted letters in contractions. 2. Use an apostrophe to show ownership, possession, or relationship. John's coat was dirty; he had fallen in the mud. The girls' bathroom has just been painted. The children's playroom was too small to contain all of the furniture. Chris's house was under construction last summer. Singular (no s) Plural (s) Plural (no s) Singular (s) Exception: If adding 's makes the word sound awkward, just add an apostrophe. Ex. Jesus' story
"I love you," John said, "but I don't want to see you anymore."
Quotation Marks Tree Map Rules Examples 1. Use quotation marks to set off direct quotes. (Place carefully!) "I love you," John said, "but I don't want to see you anymore." John said, " My sister screamed, 'Shut up,' and I screamed back." Mrs. Sprinkle said, "Use quotation marks with short works and underlining with long works." The most interesting short story that we read was called "The Lady or the Tiger." 2. Use quotation marks to set off titles of short works (stories, poems, essays, newspaper and magazine articles, book chapters, and songs) and unfamiliar slang or unusual expressions.
Quotation Marks Titles of Short Works Direct Quote
(Someone's exact words) title of book chapter The student said, "I'll not be here tomorrow." title of magazine article "If I am elected," the candidate declared, "spending will be significantly reduced." title of song title of short story "Mikey said, 'Put the frog in the refrigerator' and so I did," explained my little sister. title of an essay title of a short poem title of one-act play Frank asked, "Who is that man?" title of TV episode Did Mr. Smith say, "Your assignments are due now"? title of radio episode Indirect quote: re-wording or summarizing someone's words Do not use quotation marks with indirect quotes. Refer to p GW
Hyphen Tree Map Rules Examples
I have thirty-six students in this class. 1. Use a hyphen to form a compound word. 2. Use a hyphen to join two or more words that work together and serve as a single descriptive word before a noun. I need an up-to-date calendar. 3. Use a hyphen between prefixes and words such as self-, all-, and ex-. Her ex-boyfriend sent her a text message.
Dash Tree Map type two hyphens = dash ex. --
handwritten: draw dash as unbroken line, at least twice as long as a hyphen Dash Tree Map Rules Examples 1. Use a dash at the beginning or end of a sentence to set off added explanation or illustration and to add emphasis or clarity. Her acting added an extra touch of humor to the play -- an added sparkle. 2. Use a dash as an interrupter to mark a sudden break in thought, an abrupt change or surprise, or a deliberate pause and to show in a dialogue that the speaker has been interrupted. Of course, Everett was willing to work hard to get good grades -- but not too hard. Hilda always finds interesting restaurants -- such as Outback, that steakhouse, and Monte de Rey --to take us to after a movie. 3. Use dashes to set off a whole word group when a phrase/clause already has commas within it.
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