Presentation on theme: "Montse Flores Adeva & Ana Hernández Bartolomé"— Presentation transcript:
1 Montse Flores Adeva & Ana Hernández Bartolomé Reported SpeechEnglish Grammar4ºESOMontse Flores Adeva & Ana Hernández BartoloméIES Hoces del Duratón
2 Outline Introduction Statements (that-clause) Questions Commands Tense changesConjunction ‘that’Pronouns and possessive adjectivesPlace and time changesQuestionsInterrogative>affirmative constructionLinking wordsCommands
3 1. Introduction Direct vs. Indirect speech In direct speech we repeat the exact meaning through the words actually spoken by the speaker. We place these words between inverted commas and a comma or a colon is placed immediately before.John said: “I am ready.”John asked: “Can I open it?”
4 1. Introduction Direct vs. Indirect speech In indirect speech or reported speech, we give the exact meaning of a remark or speech, without using the speaker's exact words. That is, we report the bit of language in our own words.John said that he was ready.John asked if he could open it.
5 1. IntroductionReporting clause: it can appear in any position (beginning, middle or end)John said: “That’s mine.”“That’s mine,” John said ,“and I’m not giving it to anyone.”“That’s mine,” John said.The subject of the reporting clause can be placed after the introductory verb, if it is not a pronoun.“That’s mine,” John said. “That’s mine,” he said.“That’s mine,” said John. ***“That’s mine,” said he.
6 1. Introduction Reporting verbs Say and tell are the most common ones, but other are also possible: agree, advise, complain, explain, greet, refuse, swear, warn…Remember:Say + (to I.O.) + D.O.He said (to me) he was leaving.Tell + I.O. + D.O. He told me he was leaving.
7 2. StatementsWhen we turn direct speech into reported speech some changes are necessary because the speech is turned into the grammatical object of a reporting verb.Tense changesConjunction ‘that’Pronouns and possessive adjectivesPlace and time changes
8 2. Statements 2.1 Tense changes a) No changes When the introductory verb (say, tell, remark, etc.) is in the present, present perfect or future, direct statements can be reported with no changes of tense:“This task is easy”He saysHe is saying that this task is easy.He has saidHe will say
9 2. Statements 2.1 Tense changes b) Back-shift When the introductory verb is in the past tense, it is normal for the verb in the reported clause to be back-shifted (i.e. changed to an earlier time reference).
10 2. Statements 2.1 Tense changes b) Back-shift Present simple Simple pastPresent continuous Past continuousPresent perfect Past perfectPresent perfect cont. Past perfect cont.Past simple Past perfectFuture ConditionalConditional Conditional
11 2. Statements 2.1 Tense changes b) Back-shift: exceptions Universal truths and habitual uses: present is kept.“John drinks a cup of tea every afternoon,” Sue said.Sue said that John drinks a cup of tea every afternoon.
12 2. Statements 2.1 Tense changes b) Back-shift: exceptions Unreal past tenses after ‘wish’, ‘would rather’, ‘would sooner’, ‘it is time’… do not change."We wish we didn't have to take exams", said the students.The students said that they wished they didn't have to take exams.
13 2. Statements 2.1 Tense changes b) Back-shift: exceptions Past modal auxiliaries do not change.He said: “I might be there by 6.”He said that he might be there by 6.She said: “I would go if I could.”She said that she would go if she could.
14 2. Statements 2.2 The conjuction ‘that’ The conjunction “that” can be placed immediately after the introductory verb, but it is not essential and is often omitted.
15 2. Statements 2.3 Pronouns and possessive adjectives They change from the first into the second or third person except when the speaker is reporting his own words.I said: “I’m the winner”I said I was the winner.She said: “I’m the winner”She said she was the winner.
16 2. Statements 2.3 Place and time shifts Words denoting ‘nearness’ change to ‘remotedness.’This thatThese thoseHere thereNow thenAgo beforeToday that dayYesterday the previous day, the day beforeTomorrow the following day, the day afterThe day after tomorrow in two days’ time
17 2. Statements 2.3 Place and time shifts He said: "My brother graduated a year ago"He said that his brother had graduated a year before."I am leaving the day after tomorrow," Ron announced.Ron announced that he was leaving in two days' time.We met at the pub and he said: “I'll be here again tomorrow”We met at the pub and he said that he'd be there again the next day.
18 3. QuestionsRules for change of verbal tenses, pronouns and adverbs apply.We must also add:Interrogative>affirmative constructionLinking wordsVerbs change to: asked, wondered, enquired/inquired, wanted to know…
19 3. Questions 3.1 Interrogative>affirmative construction “Do” is not used in the indirect questionThe question mark (?) is also omitted(Wh)ASV order becomes (Wh-/if)SV“Where do you come from?” he asked.He asked her where she came from.She asked: “Did you see him?”She asked if she had seen him.
20 3. Questions 3.2 Linking word In this case the linking word is not ‘that’, but changes to:‘If/whether’ for yes/no questions.She asked: “Did you meet him?”She asked if she had met him.Wh-word for wh-word questions.“Where do you come from?” he asked.He asked her where she came from.
21 3. Questions 3.3 Special cases Polite requests: verb + object + to infinitive“Do you think you could help me?”She asked me to help her.“Could you open the window, please?”He asked me to open the window.
22 4. CommandsThe rules affecting pronouns, adjectives and other changes apply, except that there is no tense back-shift because they contain non-finite verbs, as they are infinitive clauses.There are many ways of expressing “a command” in direct speech in English, for instance: “will you” either at the beginning or at the end of a sentence can express a command.Shut the door, will you?”He told us angrily to shut the door.
23 4. Commands Additional changes The introductory verb “say”, changes to a verb of command or request, such as “tell, order, command ... ”A direct object, representing the person ordered, must be introduced.“Be quiet!”I told the children to be quiet.
24 4. Commands Tense change: imperative (not) to + inf Additional changesTense change: imperative (not) to + inf“Run quickly!”He told me to run quickly.“Don't move, boys!”She told the boys not to move.