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Grammar Review 4. Reported Speech
Reported speech/indirect speech
What is reported speech? Imagine that it is Monday morning. You meet John in a cafe. During your conversation he says, “Oh! By the way, I’ve found a new job”. On Wednesday afternoon you meet Ann in the supermarket and you want to give her John’s news. What do you say? “Blah blah, Oh! and he told me that he had found a new job”. This is reported speech. We use it when we tell another person what somebody has said or repeat something said from a previous conversation.
Reported Speech Direct Speech: Reported Speech:
is the exact words someone said. We use quotation marks in Direct Speech. He said, “I’ll wait for you.” is the exact meaning of what someone said but not in the exact words. We do not use quotation marks in reported speech. He said that he would wait for me
We use say and tell in reported speech
We use say in direct speech. She said to me , “I’m very tired.” But we also use say in Reported speech when say is not followed by the person the words were spoken to. She said (that) she was very tired We use tell in Reported speech when tell is followed by the person the words were spoken to. She told me (that) she was very tired. She told John (that) she was very tired. She told the police (that) she was very tired
“This is my book,” he said. He said that was his book.
We can report: Remember: As well as the verb “to be” (is/am/are was/were) Certain words change in Reported speech. Direct speech: this/these here come Reported that/those there go “This is my book,” he said. He said that was his book. Can changes to could Will changes to would May changes to might Must changes to had to A. Satements B. Questions C. Commands Requests Suggestions
Reported Statements To report statements we use a reporting verb (say, tell, advise, explain, promise etc) followed by a that-clause. In spoken English that may be omitted. Pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to the meaning. DS. He said, “I can’t fix it myself.” RS. He said he couldn’t fix it himself.
“I can’t remember your name,” she said.
When the reporting verb is in the Past the verb tenses change as follows: Direct Speech Reported speech Present simple: “I can’t remember your name,” she said. Present Continuous: “She’s speaking to Fred,” he said. Present Perfect: “I’ve bought you some flowers,” he said. Past Simple: “We missed the bus,” they said. Future: “I’ll met you later,” he said. Past simple: She said she couldn’t remember my name. Past Continuous: He said she was speaking to Fred. Past Perfect: He said he had bought me some flowers. Past perfect: They said that they had missed the bus. Conditional: He said he would meet me later.
Time expressions change as follows
Direct Speech Reported Speech tonight, today, this week, this month, this year, now, now that, yesterday, last night/week/month/year tomorrow, next week/month/year two days/months/years/etc. ago that night, that day, that week that month, that year, then, at that time, at once, immediately, since the day before, the previous day the night before, the previous week/month/year. the day after, the following day, the next week/month/year two days/months/years etc. before
Notice the change in word order!
Reported Questions In Reported questions we use affirmative word order and the question mark is omitted. To report a wh-question, we use ask followed by the question word (who, what , where etc). When there is no question word in direct questions (an auxilliary question – do, can etc) if or whether is used in reported questions. Pronouns, possesive adjectives, tenses, time expressions etc. change as in statements. DS. He asked, “what time is it.” RS. He asked what time it was. DS. He asked me, “Do you know her?” RS. He asked me if/whether I knew her. Notice the change in word order!
To report commands, requests, suggestions etc. we use a reporting verb (order, ask, tell, advise, offer, warn, beg, suggest*, promise etc) followed by a to-infinitive or a not to-infinitive. Note. *suggest is followed by the –ing form. DS. He said,”shall we go by train.” RS. He suggested going by train. DS. He said to them,”Stop talking.” RS. He told them to stop talking. DS. He said to me, “Don’t touch it.” RS. He told me not to touch it Notice the change in word order!
Reported Speech. A Role Play situation
You are in a hairdressers in Hollywood. In groups of 3 use the role play cards to act out this situation. Student 1 is the hairdresser. Student 2 is a famous pop singer. Student 3 is a hard of hearing customer. S1. How old are you? S2. I’m 27. S3. What did you ask? S1. I asked her how old she was. S3. What did she say? S1. She said she was 27. Students 2 and 3 are under the hairdryers S1. Where do you live? S2. I live in New York. S3. What did you ask? S1. I asked her where she lived. S3. What did she say? S1. She said she lived in New York.
Possible role play prompt cards for previous role play situation
How old are you? Where do you live? Are you married? Have you ever been to Madrid before? Do you like Spanish food? Are you staying here long? Have you visited Toledo? Who’s your favourite actor? Are you making a new LP? Do you like sports cars? Do you earn lots of money? When did you start singing? Do you write your own songs? Are you going to try acting? Do you work hard? Can you fly a plane? Do you play squash? What’s your favourite food? Are you happy with your life? Will you be making any more records? What did you do last year? Where are you going tomorrow? Have you got any children? Where did you go yesterday?
Activity 1. There has been a robbery
Activity 1. There has been a robbery. Report the policeman’s questions to the Factory Manager. Click on the number to check. What’s your name? 5. What did they steal? 2. Did you see the thieves? 3. What were they wearing? Has this ever happened before? 7. Would you recognize them again. 4. How do you think they got in 4. The policeman asked him………. how he thought they got in. 5. The policeman asked him……….. what they had stolen. 6. The policeman asked him……….. if this had ever happened before 7. The policeman asked him………… if he would recognise them again The policeman asked him what his name was……………. 2. The policeman asked him………… if he saw the thieves. 3. The policeman asked him………. what they were wearing
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