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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-1 Chapter 7: Social Behaviour and Personality in Infants and Toddlers 7.1 Emotions 7.2 Relationships with Others 7.3 Self-Concept 7.4 Temperament MODULES
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-2 Module 7.1 Emotions LEARNING OBJECTIVES Identify when infants begin to express basic emotions. Define what complex emotions are, and state when they develop. Describe when infants begin to understand other people’s emotions and how they use this information to guide their own behaviour. State when infants and toddlers begin to regulate their own emotions.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-3 Basic Emotions Happiness, sadness, anger, fear. Linked to physical and emotional states. Negative emotions Stranger wariness Although common across cultures, cultural differences in the frequency of emotional expression.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-4 Complex Emotions Guilt, embarrassment, and pride. Don’t emerge until 18-24 months, because they depend upon cognitive development and child’s reflexive understanding of the self.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-5 Recognizing and Using Others’ Emotions Infants often match their own emotions to other’s emotions. Social referencing: in unfamiliar or ambiguous environment, infants look to parents or trusted caregivers for cues to interpret situation.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-6 Regulating Emotions Regulation of emotions begins in infancy. For example, infants will look away when they encounter something frightening or confusing or move closer to a parent. With age, children develop even more effective strategies. Both genetics and parenting impact children’s emotion regulation.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-7 Module 7.2 Relationships with Others LEARNING OBJECTIVES Detail how an attachment relationship develops between an infant and a primary caregiver? Describe the different types of attachment relationships, the consequences of different types of relationships, and how child care affects attachment relations. Summarize how infants and toddlers first interact with peers.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-8 The Growth of Attachment Attachment: enduring social-emotional relationship. Relies upon infant’s growing perceptual and cognitive skills. By about 6 or 7 months, have identified a single attachment figure, usually the mother. Internal working model: a set of expectations about parents’ availability and responsivity, generally and in times of stress.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-9 Strange Situations
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-10 Quality of Attachment Types: secure, avoidant, resistant, disorganized. Positive consequences of secure attachment in later social relationships. Predictable and appropriate, responsive parenting is important for secure attachment. -Reactive attachment disorder -Privation Characteristics of child care and mother affect quality of attachment. Cross-cultural Data on Attachment
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-11 Onset of Peer Interactions Begins around 6 months with nonsocial play. Around 12 months, start to see parallel play. Around 15-18 months, youngsters engage in simple social play. Around 24 months, cooperative play begins.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-12 Module 7.3 Self-Concept LEARNING OBJECTIVES Identify when infants first recognize themselves. Describe how, following self- recognition, infants acquire a self-concept.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-13 Origins of Self-Recognition and Self-Concept When do children know they exist? Mirror-task suggests it’s between 15 and 24 months. Other evidence: preference for photos of self and use of pronouns such as “I” or “me”. Changes interactions with peers.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-14 Moving Beyond Self- Recognition 20-28-month-olds who are more self-aware are more likely to say “mine” while playing with toys with other children. As toddlers grow, self-concept moves beyond possessions.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-15 Module 7.4 Temperament LEARNING OBJECTIVES List the different features of temperament. Discuss how hereditary and environmental influence temperament. Identify how stable a child’s temperament is across childhood. Describe the consequences of different temperaments.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-16 What is Temperament? Consistent mood or style of behaviour. Different dimensions (e.g., emotionality, activity, sociability).
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-17 Hereditary and Environmental Contributions to Temperament Twin studies show genetic influence. Children more likely to have difficult temperaments when mothers are abrupt and lack confidence.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-18 Stability of Temperament Temperament is modestly stable throughout infancy and the preschool years. An active fetus is more likely to be a difficult, unadaptive infant. Newborns who cry under moderate stress tend to cry as 5-month-olds when stressed.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-19 Temperament and Other Aspects of Development Various aspects of temperament are related to school success, peer interactions, and compliance with parents. Temperament is also related to helping others.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-20 Conclusions Psychologists use facial expressions to judge infant’s emotional development. Complex emotions have an evaluative component and include guilt, embarrassment and pride. Attachment is an enduring social-emotional relationship between infant and primary caregiver. Secure attachments are formed when infants have complete trust in their primary caregiver. Children’s first peer interactions appear at about 12-15 months and involve various forms of play. Self-awareness leads to self-concept and influences peer interactions. Temperament influences infant-family/peer interactions and is influenced by environment.
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