Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: Basic Sensory and Perceptual Processes."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 10: Basic Sensory and Perceptual Processes
Chapter 10: Emotional Development Chapter 10 contains three modules: Module 10.1 Emerging Emotions Module 10.2 Temperament Module 10.3 Attachment
Emerging Emotions The Function of Emotions Experiencing and Expressing Emotions Recognizing and Using Others’ Emotions Regulating Emotions
Module 10.1 Emerging Emotions Why do people “feel”? Why do they have emotions? At what ages do children begin to experience and express different emotions? When do children begin to understand other people’s emotions? How do they use this information to guide their own behavior? When do children show evidence of regulating emotion, and why is this an important skill? Module 10.2 Temperament Module 5.3 Motor Development
The Function of Emotions Help people adapt to their environments Lead to avoiding danger (fear) Strengthen relationships (happiness) Keep people away from things that make them ill (disgust)
Development of Basic Emotions Basic emotions fear, surprise, anger, disgust, happiness, sadness Developmental path 2-3 mos: social smile 4-6 mos: generalized distress, anger 6-9 mos: stranger wariness; fear, regret
Emergence of Complex Emotions Complex emotions Feelings of success and failure Developmental path 18-24 mos: understanding of self; guilt, embarrassment; pride
Later Emotional Development Later development Emotional repertoire expands with age and triggers changes Developmental path 7 years: regret; relief
Cultural Differences in Emotional Expression Worldwide Expression of many same basic and complex emotions Difference in ways emotional expressions encouraged and in emotional triggers Culture influences when and how much children express emotions.
Recognizing and Using Others’ Emotions By 4-6 months: identify facial expressions associated with different emotions Elementary school: understand people can have mixed feelings As children develop, they also begin to learn display rules
Regulating Emotions Regulation of emotions begins More effective strategies gradually develop Self-regulation reduces reliance on others Reliance on mental strategies increases Better matching of emotional regulation with particular settings ensues
Temperament What is Temperament? Hereditary and Environmental Contributions to Temperament Stability of Temperament Temperament and Other Aspects of Development
Module 10.1 Emerging Emotions Module 10.2 Temperament What are the different features of temperament? How do heredity and environment influence temperament? How stable is a child’s temperament across childhood? What are the consequences of different temperaments? Module 5.3 Motor Development
What is Temperament? Temperament: behavioral styles that are fairly stable across situations and are biologically based Thomas and Chess 3 patterns 5 dimensions
Structure Theory of Temperament in Infancy Rothbart 3 dimensions Can you name and provide an example for each of these dimensions?
True or False? Temperament is moderately stable through infancy, childhood, and adolescence.
Stability of Temperament Fearful preschoolers tend to be inhibited as older child and adolescent Inhibited children more likely to be introverted adults
Temperament and Other Aspects of Development Various aspects of temperament related to: school success peer interactions compliance with parents depression helping others environmental influences
Temperament and Helping Behavior Young child’s temperament helps determine if child will help. Look at the figure to the right. Can you explain?
Attachment The Growth of Attachment The Quality of Attachment
Module 10.1 Emerging Emotions Module 10.2 Temperamen t Module 5.3 Attachment How does an attachment relationship develop between an infant and primary caregiver? What different types of attachment relationships are there? What are the consequences of different types of relationships?
The Growth of Attachment Attachment: Enduring social-emotional relationship between infant and parent Relies upon infant’s growing perceptual and cognitive skills Bowlby’s four phases
The Growth of Attachment Developmental profile By about 7 months: Infants have identified a single attachment figure Usually first attach to mothers, then to fathers Prefer to play with fathers, but prefer mothers for comfort
The Quality of Attachment Ainsworth Types Positive consequences of secure attachment Influence of predictable, responsive parenting Impact of child care and maternal characteristics Influence of environmental contexts and events
The Quality of Attachment Factors determining attachment quality Positive parent-child interactions Internal working models of infant and parent Caregiver sensitivity for developing secure environment
The Quality of Attachment Consequences of attachment quality Attachment is first social relationship and base for all following social relationships Secure attachment outcomes Disorganized attachment outcomes