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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-1 Chapter 13: Social Behaviour and Personality in Middle Childhood 13.1 Self-Esteem 13.2 Relationships with.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-1 Chapter 13: Social Behaviour and Personality in Middle Childhood 13.1 Self-Esteem 13.2 Relationships with."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-1 Chapter 13: Social Behaviour and Personality in Middle Childhood 13.1 Self-Esteem 13.2 Relationships with Peers 13.3 Helping Others 13.4 Aggression 13.5 Families in the Early 21 st Century MODULES

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-2 Module 13.1 Self-Esteem LEARNING OBJECTIVES Describe how self-esteem is measured in school-age children. Demonstrate how self-esteem changes in the elementary school years. Identify the factors influencing the development of self-esteem. Understand how children’s development may be affected by low self-esteem.

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-3 Measuring Self-Esteem One common measure: Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC). Measures overall self- esteem as well as self- esteem in 5 specific areas: scholastic competence athletic competence social acceptance behavioural conduct physical appearance Sample Items and Profiles from SPPC Source: Harter, 1985

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-4 Developmental Change in Self-Esteem Self-esteem is highest in preschoolers. Drops during the elementary school years, due to social comparisons. Self- esteem becomes more differentiated. Academic self-esteem becomes well-defined.

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-5 Sources of Self-Esteem Children have higher self-esteem when parents are nurturing and involved and establish rules concerning discipline. Comparisons with others (particularly peers). Self-esteem is high when others view positively and low when others view negatively. Consequences of Low Self-Esteem Children with low self- esteem more likely to have problems with peers, have psychological disorders, be involved in antisocial behavior, and do poorly in school. Sometimes difficult to establish cause and effect relations regarding low self- esteem.

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-6 Module13.2 Relationships with Peers LEARNING OBJECTIVES Why do children become friends, and what are the benefits of friendship? Why are some children more popular than others? What are the causes and consequences of being rejected? What are the origins of prejudice?

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-7 An Overview of Peer Interactions in Middle Childhood Children get along better than when they were younger. Perspective-taking plays a large role. Spend more time with peers without adult supervision. Children “hang out” and play physical games. Activities that Children Do with Friends

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-8 Friendship Based on common interests and liking in children; intimacy is more important among adolescents, particularly girls. Friends usually alike in age, gender, and race. Children with good friends have higher self- esteem, are more cooperative, and deal better with life stresses.

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-9 Popularity and Rejection 5 common categories: popular, rejected, controversial, average, neglected. Popular children tend to be attractive, smart, and socially skilled. Rejected children are socially unskilled, related to parents’ behavior and discipline. Prejudice Negative view of others based on group membership. Preschool children often are most prejudiced. Declines with age, particularly when groups mix and work together toward common goals.

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-10 Module 13.3 Helping Others LEARNING OBJECTIVES List what skills children need to behave prosocially. Describe the types of situations that influence children’s prosocial behaviour. Describe how parents can foster prosocial behaviour in their children.

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-11 Prosocial Behaviour Skills Perspective-taking: Children help when they can imagine another’s situation. Empathy: Children help when they can feel as another person is feeling. Socializing Parents should use reasoning when disciplining children because it leads to perspective taking. Model prosocial behaviour for children. Use praise, particularly dispositional praise.

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-12 Situational Influences Children help when they feel responsible for the person in need. Feel competent to help. Are in a good mood. When the cost of helping is modest.

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-13 Module 13.4 Aggression LEARNING OBJECTIVES Identify the forms of aggressive behaviour common during middle childhood. Identify how families, television, and the child’s own thoughts contribute to aggression. Note why some children become victims of aggression.

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-14 The Nature of Children’s Aggressive Behaviour Instrumental aggression: used to achieve specific goal (e.g., toy). Reactive aggression: one child’s behaviour leads to another’s aggression. Relational aggression: try to hurt others by undermining social relationships. Forms of aggression change with age. Relation of Childhood Aggression to Adult Crime

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-15 The Impact of Aggression on Children Parents contribute, particularly through use of physical punishment. TV also contributes, when children watch violent TV shows. Cognitive processes affect how children interpret social situations and select appropriate responses.

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-16 Victims of Aggression Youngsters are likely to be victims of aggression when they are aggressive themselves or are withdrawn and submissive. Children can avoid being victims by learning new ways of responding to aggression, by raising their self-esteem, and by having friends.

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-17 Module 13.5 Families in the Early 21st Century LEARNING OBJECTIVES Describe how well children can care for themselves after school. Summarize the effects of divorce and remarriage on children.

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-18 After-School Care Some children are latchkey children and care for themselves after school. Many factors must be considered (e.g., child’s maturity, neighbourhood safety) and parents must monitor their children.

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-19 Divorce Immediately after, children may behave less maturely and parents are less effective but this improves with time. Divorce affects children’s conduct, school achievement, adjustment, self-concept, and relationships with parents. Women’s remarriage: sons usually benefit from stepfather but daughters often resent.

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-20 Conclusions The SPPC measures children’s overall self-worth and their self-worth in five areas. When children have good friends, they are more likely to behave prosocially and are better adjusted. Prejudice is reduced with friendly and constructive contacts between children from different groups. In families with aggressive children, a vicious circle often develops in which parents and children respond to neutral behaviour aggressively and escalate aggressive exchanges. Some children who are chronic victims of aggression overreact when provoked; others withdraw and submit to aggression. Divorce harms children by making one parent less accessible and by exposing children to economic hardship and to parental conflict.

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