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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 6 Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Psychodynamic Stages AgeErikson’s StageFreud’s Stage First Year Basic Trust versus Mistrust Oral Second Year Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt Anal
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 First Appearance of Basic Emotions Happiness Smile – from birth Social smile – 6 to 10 weeks Laugh – 3–4 months Anger General distress – from birth Anger – 4–6 months Fear First fears – second half of first year Stranger Anxiety – 8–12 months
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Understanding Emotions of Others Emotional Contagion Early infancy Recognize Other’s Facial Expressions 7 – 10 months Social Referencing
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Self-Conscious Emotions Shame Embarrassment Guilt Envy Pride Emerge middle of second year Need adult instruction about when to feel them
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Emotional Self-Regulation Young infants rely in caregivers to soothe them. Self-regulation grows over fist year, with brain development. Caregivers contribute to child’s self- regulation style.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Structure of Temperament Easy – 40% Difficult – 10% Slow-to-warm-up – 15% Unclassified – 35%
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Biological Basis for Temperament Inhibited, Shy React negatively, withdraw from new stimuli High heart rates, stress hormones, & stress symptoms Higher right hemisphere frontal cortex activity. Uninhibited, Sociable React positively, approach new stimuli Low hear rates, stress hormones, and stress symptoms Higher left hemisphere frontal cortex activity
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Genetics and Environment in Temperament Genetic Influences Responsible for about half of individual differences Ethnicity, gender Environmental Influences Cultural caregiving styles Boys & girls treated differently Parents emphasize sibling differences Goodness-of-Fit Combines genetics and environment
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Ethological Theory of Attachment Preattachment phase Attachment-in-the- making phase Phase of clear-cut attachment Separation anxiety Formation of a reciprocal relationship
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Measuring the Security of Attachment Secure – 65% Avoidant – 20% Resistant – 10% Disorganized- disoriented – 5–10%
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Cultural Variations in Attachment Security
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Factors that Affect Attachment Security Opportunity for attachment Quality of caregiving Interactional synchrony Infant characteristics Family circumstances Parents’ internal working models
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Multiple Attachments Fathers Siblings Grandparents Professional caregivers
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Attachment and Later Development Secure attachment related to positive outcomes in: Preschool Middle childhood Continuity of caregiving may link infant attachment and later development.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Factors that Affect Attachment of Children in Child Care Initial Attachment Quality Family Circumstances Quality of Child Care Developmentally Appropriate Practice Extent of Child Care
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 I-Self and Me-Self I-Self Sense of self as agent Separate from surrounding world Can control own thoughts and actions Me-Self Sense of self as object of knowledge and evaluation Qualities that make self unique: Physical characteristics Possessions Attitudes, beliefs, personality
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Self-Control Ability to resist impulses Emerges around 18 months Improves through early childhood Individual differences are lasting: Gender Sensitive caregiving
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Compliance Understanding and obeying caregivers’ wishes and standards Emerges between 12 and 18 months Toddlers assert autonomy by sometimes not complying Warm, sensitive caregiving increases compliance
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Helping Toddlers Develop Compliance and Self-Control Respond with sensitivity and support Give advance notice of change in activities Offer many prompts and reminders Reinforce self-controlled behavior Encourage sustained attention Support language development Increase rules gradually
Development Through the Lifespan
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 19 Death, Dying, and Bereavement This multimedia product and its contents are protected.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 8 Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood This multimedia product and.
Chapter 5: Entering the Social World
Social and Emotional Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood
Socioemotional Development in Infancy
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 6 Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood This multimedia product.
Psychosocial Development During the First Three Years
Chapter 7:Psychosocial Development Theories explaining psychosocial development during the first two years of life Psychoanalytic Erikson Epigentic Attachment.
Teresa M. McDevitt and Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Child Development and Education, third edition Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River,
Chapter 4: Infancy: Socioemotional Development. Attachment: The Basic Life Bond History Behaviorists (Watson, Skinner) minimized human attachment.
PED 392 CHILD GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Chapter 6: Self-Concept, Identity, and Motivation.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 10 Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood This multimedia product.
Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Summary
Parents and Families Chapter 4
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Prenatal Development And Birth Social and Personality Development in Infancy This multimedia.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada7-1 Chapter 7: Social Behaviour and Personality in Infants and Toddlers 7.1 Emotions 7.2 Relationships with Others.
Exploring Lifespan Development
Chapter 10: Basic Sensory and Perceptual Processes.
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