Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Summary
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1 Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Summary Social and emotional development in the first year of life culminates in the formation of attachments between infants and caregivers.- expression of temperament- specific emotions emergeIn the next 18 months (to approx. 2 ½ yrs), there is increased independence from caregivers, increased sociability and a broader range of emotional responses.
2 Social Exchanges Newborns are prewired to be social Signal psychological and physiological needsDetect changes in environmentAttracted to social stimuli: faces, speech, soundsFall in step with caregiver’s behavior
3 Emotional Development Emotion: Subjective reactions to experience that are associated with physiological and behavioral changes.0-6 months (“fundamental emotions”)Basic emotional responses to certain eventsFrustration when can’t carry out a motor routineWariness of strangersManage emotionally arousing situations by sleeping and crying7-12 monthsQualitative changes and better regulation of emotionsSpecific emotions emerge: joy, anger, fear, surpriseStranger distress12-30 months (“secondary”)Self-conscious emotions with greater understanding of sense of self and relationship to othersShame, embarrassment, guilt,envy, pride
4 Being an Active Participant: Infant Crying and Social Smiling Crying: many variationsBirth: smiling not attached to any emotion6-10 weeks: begin to smile when interacting with caregiver and recognizing objects; ‘social smile’4 months: purposely smileat people they know
5 Temperament Framework Temperament: general style of behavior across contextsGeneral activity levelIrritabilityProneness to distressReactivityInhibition
6 Structure of temperament Temperament: Characteristic disposition, biologically-based way or style of approaching and reacting to people and situationsStructure of temperamentEasy childDifficult childSlow-to-warm-up childMeasuring temperamentStability of temperament
7 Temperament and child rearing “All children are gifted. Some just open their packages a little later than others.” S. KeirseyTemperament and child rearingGoodness-of-fit model: how environment and temperament work together to produce a favorable outcomeWhat kind of environment might produce a favorable outcome for a difficult baby?
8 Development of Attachment Attachment is the strong, affectional tie we feel for special people in our lives that leads us to feel pleasure and joy when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness during times of stress.Different from bonding (parent’s tie to newborn), attachments are reciprocalPhase of clear-cut attachment: 6 mos – 18 mos.Hallmarks of attachment: separation distress, greeting reactions, secure base behavior18-24 mos: formation of a reciprocal relationship
9 Attachment FrameworkIn all but the most extreme cases, infants become attached to their caregiverImportant Attachment ResearchersBowlby: European orphanages, foster careAinsworth: Strange SituationHarlow: Rhesus MonkeysShow attachment video clips
10 The Attachment Framework In all but the most extreme cases, infants become attached to a caregiver.When infants experience sensitive care, they become confident the caregiver will be responsive, giving the infant a secure base for exploration.Erikson/trust = Bowlby/secure attachmentErickson/mistrust = Bowlby/ insecure/anxious attachment
11 Patterns of Attachment SecureInfant is confident of caregiver’s availability and responsiveness, and can use caregiver as secure base for exploration. Most (60-70%) infants show this.Anxious-resistantInfant separates form the caregiver reluctantly but shows ambivalence toward caregiver after a separation.Anxious-avoidantInfant readily separates from caregiver and avoids contact after a brief separation.Main added another attachment style:Disorganized-disorientedInfant shows contradictory features of several patterns of anxious attachment or appears dazed and disoriented.
12 Quality of Care & Security of Attachment Attachment PatternAssociated Caregiver Behaviorsecuresensitive careanxious-resistantinconsistent careexaggerated maternal behaviorsineffective soothinganxious-avoidantindifferenceemotional unavailability oractive rejectiondisorganized-disorientedmaltreatment orfrightening or confusing behavior
13 Attachment Framework Factors related to attachment Stress in caregiver’s lifeSocial support for caregiverDevelopmental history of caregiverAttachment as a child will often influence adult relationships
14 Infant Attachment and Later Development The Sensitive Period Hypothesis:The idea that certain kinds of experience are especially important at particular points in development.Internal working model =An infant’s generalized expectations about the social world, including caregiver responsiveness, infant’s own ability to obtain care, the nature of social relationshipsClear links exist between quality of infant-caregiver attachment and toddlers' later functioning (e.g., Toddlers with a history of secure attachment show greater effectiveness at problem-solving.)
15 The Origins of Reciprocity True social interactions involving mutual exchanges between partners.Attunement:Caregivers’ adjustment of the stimulation they provide in response to signs from the infant.Sensitive care:A caregiving style in which the caregiver attends to the infant’s needs and responds to them promptly and effectively.
16 Emotional Expression, Regulation and Responding to Others Emotional self-regulation – strategies used to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goalsSocial referencing – relying on another person’s emotional reaction to appraise an uncertain situationEmotional understanding
17 The self-awareness that emerges in toddlerhood includes individual expectations about the self that influence the child's responses to the environment.
18 Self and Social Understanding Social cognitionThinking about the characteristics of the self and other peopleSocializationinternalizationSelf-conceptAttributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that individual believes define who he or she is
19 Moving Toward Independence Mobile toddlers readily separate from their caregivers to play and explore.The infant's need for physical contact with the caregiver is increasingly replaced by the toddler's reliance on psychological contact -- exchanges of words, smiles, and looks.Infant learns to integrate various capabilities in new and purposeful ways.Self-efficacy: a sense of being able to master challenges and achieve goals
21 Understanding of Others Toddlers show increased awareness and understanding of others in many ways:Try to get others to attend to an object.Show more emotion to others.Show some capacity to respond to desires and intentions of another person.Social referencing:Use of cues from another person to interpret situations and guide behavior.
22 Interactions Between Toddlers Interactions with other children become increasingly prevalent during the toddler period.Between 15 to 24 months, children develop the ability to behave in a complementary manner with a peer. (parallel play)Social pretend play at age 3:object-centered playimitationsocial pretend play (acting out interrelated roles)
23 The Active Role of the Child More clearly than in infancy, the toddler’s own characteristics play a role in development.Inborn differences in temperament are critical.Dimensions like intensity of response become more stable and consistent.Inhibited toddlers may have difficulty coping with new challenges.Oppositional toddlers may not be responsive to gentle treatment.
24 Parent-Toddler Relations As child matures, parents need to:Support child’s exploration of worldSet appropriate limits for childOffer developmentally appropriate guidance