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Chapter 11 Self and Personality

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1 Chapter 11 Self and Personality

2 Personality An organized combination of attributes, motives, values, and behaviors Unique to each individual Traits consistent across situations and time Self-concept: Domain specific views of self Self esteem: Global evaluation of self Identity: overall sense of who you are

3 Trait Theory Psychometric approach Personality: a set of traits Individual differences in each trait Measurement approach “Big Five” - Universal and stable Evidence of genetic basis Universal


5 Social Learning Theory
Personality A set of behavior tendencies Shaped by interactions Found in specific social situations No universal stages Not enduring traits People change as environment changes Situational influences important

6 Infancy: The Emerging Self
First 6 months: Discover physical self Joint attention – 9 months Difference in perceptions can be shared Self-recognition – 18 months Categorical self (age, sex) - 18 – 24 months Based on cognitive development Requires social experience The looking-glass self: a “reflection”


8 Temperament Refers to individual differences in behavioral style.
Tendencies to respond in predictable ways Seen in infancy Genetically based Building blocks of personality In addition, it is based on: parenting techniques Learning to interpret cues Sensitive responding

9 The Child Childhood “Self” By age 2 Use of “I” “me” “mine” Use physical characteristics to describe By age 8 Social identity Personality trait terms used Social comparison

10 Self Esteem: Multidimentional
By 3rd grade (Harter) Scholastic competence Social acceptance Behavioral conduct Athletic competence Physical appearance Accuracy improves with age

11 Influences on Self-Esteem
Competence Differences Social feedback – positive or negative Genetic Parents (cross-cultural) Warm and democratic Enforce clearly stated rules

12 Early Temperament and Later Personality
Some weak links found Shy 3 yr-olds become cautious teens Difficult 3 yr-olds remain difficult Well-adjusted 3 yr-olds also Current research Temperament and Big 5 related May carry-over into adulthood

13 Adolescent Integration
Different selves in different situations Storm and Stress in about 20% Move to middle school Often difficult Especially for females Most readily regain high self-esteem

14 A Sense of Identity Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence Identity Crisis Marcia’s Identity Statuses (next slide) Diffusion Foreclosure Moratorium Achievement


16 Influences on Identity Formation
1. Cognitive growth: formal operations 2. Relationships with parents Rejection except for diffusion status Identification w/parents first helps Foreclosure: may not develop own ID Achieved more likely if living independently Moratorium -> Identity Achieved Affection and freedom at home

17 Influences on Identity
3. Experiences outside the home e.g., going to college 4. Broader cultural context Modern Western society Forge own ID after exploration of many Traditional societies Foreclosure may be more adaptive

18 Self-Concept and Aging
Stable self-esteem generally good Ability to adjust ideal to real self Evaluate self with different standards Comparisons with age-mates Related to stable personality traits Collectivist vs Individualistic culture

19 Changes in Personality
Cross-sectional studies show changes Longitudinal/cross-cultural studies Adulthood: achievement and confidence Older adults Activity levels decline Introversion and introspection increase

20 Costa & McRae: “The Big 5”
Biologically based Cross-age consistency Resistant to environmental changes Historical context influential Universal maturational change Achievement through middle adulthood Less N, E, and O More C and A

21 Influences on Personality Change
Effects of early experiences Stability of environment Gene-environment interaction Biological factors (disease) Social environment Poor person-environment fit

22 Adulthood: Erikson and Research
Men: Identity then Intimacy Women: Identity & Intimacy together Generativity supported Integrity supported Life review

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