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© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Child Development Laura E. Berk 7th edition Chapter 6 Cognitive Development: Piagetian, Core Knowledge, and Vygotskian Perspectives This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Goals of Cognitive Development Research Chart typical course of development Examine individual differences Uncover mechanisms of cognitive development
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Basics of Piaget’s Theory Stages are invariant Stages are universal General theory Considers all aspects of cognition Constructivist approach
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Schemes Are psychological structures Organized ways of making sense of experience Change with age Action-based (motor patterns) at first Later move to a mental (thinking) level
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Assimilation & Accommodation Assimilation Using current schemes to interpret external world Used during equilibrium Accommodation Adjusting old schemes, creating new ones to better fit environment Prompted by disequilibrium
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Adaptation and Organization Adaptation Building schemes through direct interaction with environment Organization Internal rearranging and linking of schemes
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage Birth to 2 years Building schemes through sensory and motor exploration Circular reactions
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Sensorimotor Substages Reflexive SchemesBirth –1 month Newborn reflexes Primary Circular Reactions 1 – 4 monthsSimple motor habits centered around own body Secondary Circular Reactions 4 – 8 monthsRepeat interesting effects in soundings Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions 8 – 12 months Intentional, goal-directed behavior; object permanence Tertiary Circular Reactions 12 – 18 months Explore properties of objects through novel actions Mental Representations 12 months – 2 years Internal depictions of objects or events; deferred imitation
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Object Permanence Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight According to Piaget, develops in Substage 4 Incomplete at first: A-not-B Error
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Mental Representations Internal, mental depictions of information Images: objects, people, places Concepts: categories Can manipulate with mind Allow: Deferred imitation Make-believe play
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Progress in Finding Objects Hidden in Two Ways
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Deferred Imitation Piaget: Develops at about 18 months Newer research: 6 weeks – facial imitation 6 – 9 months – copy actions with objects 12 – 14 months – imitate rationally 18 months – imitate intended, but not completed, actions
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Development of Categorization Perceptual Based on similar overall appearance or prominent part Conceptual Based on common function or behavior Later add event categories
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Evaluation of the Sensorimotor Stage How Piaget was right Timing of: Object search, A-not-B, Make-believe play How Piaget might have been wrong Timing of object permanence, deferred imitation, categorization, problem-solving by analogy All occur sooner than Piaget thought Some suggest infants are born with core knowledge in several domains of thought
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Gains in Preoperational Mental Representation Make-believe play Dual representation Language Piaget believed it developed from sensorimotor experiences
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Development of Make-Believe Play With age, make-believe gradually becomes: More detached from real-life conditions Less self-centered More complex Sociodramatic play
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Benefits of Make-Believe Play Practice representational schemes Emotional integration Social, language skills Attention, memory, logical reasoning Imagination, creativity
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Progression of Drawing Skills 1.Scribbles: during 2nd year 2.First Representational Forms Label already-made drawings: around age 3 Draw boundaries and people: 3–4 years 3.More Realistic Drawings: preschool to school age
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Dual Representation Viewing a symbolic object as both an object and a symbol Mastered around age 3 Adult teaching can help Provide lots of maps, photos, drawings, make-believe playthings, etc. Point out similarities to real world
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Limitations of Preoperational Thought Cannot perform mental operations Egocentrism and animistic thinking Cannot conserve Lack hierarchical classification
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Egocentrism Failure to distinguish others’ views from one’s own
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Animistic Thinking Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Limits on Conservation Centration Focus on one aspect and neglect others Irreversibility Cannot mentally reverse a set of steps
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Piagetian Class Inclusion Problem
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Follow-Up Research on Preoperational Thought Egocentric Thought Can adjust language to others and take others’ perspectives in simple situations Animistic thinking comes from incomplete knowledge of objects Illogical Thought Can do simplified conservation Can reason by analogy Use causal expressions Categorization Everyday knowledge is categorized Appearance versus reality Can solve appearance-reality tasks in nonverbal ways
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Analogy Problems
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Evaluation of the Preoperational Stage How Piaget was right Preschoolers do develop beginnings of logical thinking How Piaget might have been wrong Logical thinking develops more gradually than Piaget thought
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Achievements of the Concrete Operational Stage Conservation Decentration Reversibility Classification Seriation Transitive inference Spatial Reasoning Directions Maps
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Use of Maps
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Limitations of Concrete Operational Thought Operations work best with objects that are concrete Problems with abstract ideas Horizontal décalage Master concrete operational tasks gradually
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Follow-up Research on Concrete Operational Thought Going to school gives experience on Piagetian tasks Relevant non-school experiences of some cultures can help too Culture and schooling affect performance on tasks
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Piaget’s Theory: Formal Operational Stage Propositional Thought Evaluating the logic of verbal propositions Hypothetico-deductive reasoning Deducing hypotheses from a general theory Pendulum problem
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Piaget’s Pendulum Problem
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Consequences of Abstract Thought Self-Consciousness & Self-Focusing Imaginary audience Sensitivity to criticism Personal fable Idealism and Criticism Problems with Decision Making Inexperience Overwhelming options
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Follow-up Research on Formal Operational Thought School-age children start developing abstract thinking skills Problems with propositional thinking Logical necessity Careful thinking about major premise Formal operations may not be universal Training, context contribute Often fall back on easier thinking
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Educational Principles Derived from Piaget’s Theory Discovery learning Sensitivity to children’s readiness to learn Developmentally appropriate practices Acceptance of individual differences
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Overall Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory Piaget’s change processes — assimilation, accommodation, and organization — can’t account for patterns of children’s changes observed today Cognitive development not always self- generating Cognition not as broadly stagelike as Piaget believed Piaget’s theory still inspires research
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Core Knowledge Perspective Evolutionary perspective: infants start life with innate, special-purpose knowledge systems Core domains of thought Core domains prepare us to rapidly develop key aspects of cognition Development is domain-specific Children as naïve theorists
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Suggested Domains of Core Knowledge Physical Numerical Linguistic Psychological Biological
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Violation of Expectation Method
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Development of Infants’ Physical Knowledge One solid object cannot move through another 2 - 3 months Size comparisons - notice when objects are: Too wide for openings5-6 months Too tall for containers7-8 months Gravity, object support 6- 7 months
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Infants’ Numerical Knowledge Findings are mixed and controversial Infants may be able to: Discriminate quantities and do simple arithmetic up to 3 Approximate large- number values
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Theory of Children as Theorists Children: Observe an event Explain, or theorize about its cause Draw on innate concepts Test theory against experience Revise theory if needed
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Is Biology a Core Domain? Develops later than other domains Psychological explanations for biological events Late development is common around the world More evidence is needed
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Evaluation of Core Knowledge Perspective Most serious consideration of beginnings of thinking Amount and nature of inborn knowledge hotly debated Suggests environment and experience work together, but does not clarify how Suggests cognitive development is independent; little attention to learning with others
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Cognition is based on: Social interactions Language
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Children’s Private Speech Piaget called this “egocentric speech” Vygotsky viewed it as foundation for all higher cognitive processes Helps guide behavior Used more when tasks are difficult, after errors, or when confused Gradually becomes more silent Children with learning and behavior problems use longer
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Zone of Proximal Development Tasks child cannot do alone but can learn to do with help
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Social Interactions that Promote Cognitive Development Intersubjectivity Scaffolding Guided participation
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Vygotsky and Make-Believe Play Provides Zone of Proximal Development Imaginary substitutions help children separate thinking from objects Rules strengthen capacity to think before acting
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Vygotsky and Education Assisted Discovery Teacher: Guides learning Tailors help to Zone of Proximal Development Peer Collaboration
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Reciprocal Teaching Teacher and students take turns leading dialogue Ask Summarize Clarify Predict
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Cooperative Learning Small groups of classmates work toward common goals Cultural variations in ability to learn cooperatively
© Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Evaluation of Vygotsky’s Theory Helps explain cultural diversity in cognition Emphasizes importance of teaching Focus on language deemphasizes observation, other learning methods Says little about biological contributions to cognition Vague in explanation of change
Development Through the Lifespan
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, PART 1
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Cognition.
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