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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. 1
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Piaget’s Theory: Schemes Psychological structures Organized ways of making sense of experience Change with age Action-based (motor patterns) at first Later move to a mental (thinking) level
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Building Schemes Adaptation Building schemes Assimilation Using current schemes to interpret external world Accommodation Adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit environment
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Using Assimilation and Accommodation Equilibrium and Disequilibrium Use assimilation during equilibrium Disequilibrium prompts accommodation Organization Internal rearranging and linking schemes
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Sensorimotor Stage Birth to 2 years Building schemes through sensory and motor exploration Circular reactions
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Sensorimotor Substages Reflexive SchemesBirth –1 month Newborn reflexes Primary Circular Reactions 1 – 4 months Simple motor habits centered around own body Secondary Circular Reactions 4 – 8 months Repeat interesting effects in soundings Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions 8 – 12 months Intentional, goal-directed behavior; object permanence Tertiary Circular Reactions 12 – 18 months Explore properties of objects through novel actions Mental Representations 12 months – 2 years Internal depictions of objects or events; deferred imitation
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Object Permanence Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight According to Piaget, develops in Substage 4. Incomplete at first: A-not-B Error
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Mental Representations Internal, mental depictions of objects, people, events, information Can manipulate with mind Allow deferred imitation and make-believe play
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Violation of Expectations Method
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Evaluation of Sensorimotor Stage Some developments happen at time Piaget described: Object search, A-not-B, make-believe play Many appear to happen sooner than Piaget thought: Object permanence, deferred imitation, problem solving by analogy Some have suggested that infants are born with core knowledge in several domains of thought
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Store Model of Information Processing System
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Improvements in Information Processing During Infancy Attention Efficiency, ability to shift focus improve. Less attraction to novelty, better sustained attention after first year. Memory Retention intervals lengthen. Recall appears by 1 year; excellent in second year. Categorization Impressive perceptual categorization in first year. Conceptual categorization in second year
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Social contexts (other people) contribute to cognitive development Zone of Proximal Development – tasks child cannot do alone but can learn to do with help
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Meaning of Different IQ Scores
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 IQ Improvement from Early Intervention Programs
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Three Theories of Language Development Behaviorist Learned through operant conditioning (reinforcement) and imitation Nativist Inborn Language Acquisition Device (LAD) biologically prepares infants to learn rules of language Interactionist Inner capacities and environment work together; social context is important
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Getting Ready to Talk First speech sounds Cooing Babbling Becoming a communicator Joint attention Give- and-take Preverbal gestures
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Starting to Talk First Words Underextension Overextension Two-Word Utterances Telegraphic Speech
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Individual Differences in Language Development Environment Child Directed Speech Gender Personality Language Style Referential Expressive Language Delay
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Supporting Early Language Learning Infants Respond to coos and babbles Establish and respond to joint attention Play social games Toddlers Play make-believe together Have frequent conversations Read to toddlers often. Talk about the books
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