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Development Through the Lifespan

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Presentation on theme: "Development Through the Lifespan"— Presentation transcript:

1 Development Through the Lifespan
Chapter 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

2 Piaget’s Theory: Schemes
Psychological structures Organized ways of making sense of experience Change with age Action-based sensorimotor patterns Later move to “thinking before acting” pattern – creative and deliberate Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

3 Building Schemes Adaptation Assimilation Accommodation
Building schemes through direct interaction with environment Assimilation Using current schemes to interpret external world Accommodation Adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit environment Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

4 Using Assimilation and Accommodation
Equilibrium and Disequilibrium Use assimilation during equilibrium Disequilibrium prompts accommodation Organization Internal rearranging and linking schemes Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

5 Sensorimotor Stage Birth to 2 years
Building schemes through sensory and motor exploration Circular reactions Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

6 Sensorimotor Substages
Reflexive Schemes Birth –1 mo. Newborn reflexes Primary Circular Reactions 1–4 months Simple motor habits centered around own body Secondary Circular Reactions 4–8 months Repeat interesting effects in surroundings Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions 8–12 months Intentional, goal-directed behavior; object permanence Tertiary Circular Reactions 12–18 months Explore properties of objects through novel actions Mental Representations 12 months – 2 years Internal depictions of objects or events; deferred imitation Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

7 Object Permanence Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight According to Piaget, develops in Substage 4 Not yet complete: A-not-B search error Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

8 Mental Representations
Internal, mental depictions of objects, people, events, information Can manipulate with mind Allow deferred imitation and make-believe play Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

9 Violation of Expectations Method
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

10 Deferred Imitation Piaget: Develops about 18 months Newer research:
6 weeks – facial imitation 6 – 9 months – copy actions with objects 12 – 14 months – imitate rationally 18 months – imitate intended, but not completed, actions Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

11 Evaluation of the Sensorimotor Stage
Develop when Piaget suggested Object search A-not-B Make-believe play Develop earlier than Piaget suggested Object permanence Deferred imitation Categorization Problem solving by analogy Some suggest infants are born with core knowledge in several domains of thought Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

12 Core Knowledge Perspective
Born with innate, special-purpose knowledge systems Core domains of thought Core domains allow quick grasp of related information Support rapid early development Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

13 Suggested Domains of Core Knowledge
Linguistic Psychological Physical Numerical Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

14 Testing Babies’ Numerical Knowledge
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

15 Infants’ Numerical Knowledge
Infants may be able to: Discriminate quantities up to 3 Do simple arithmetic Findings are controversial Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

16 Store Model of Information Processing
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17 Information-Processing Improvements
Attention Efficiency, ability to shift focus improve Less attraction to novelty, better sustained attention after first year Memory Retention intervals lengthen Recall appears by 1 year; excellent in second year Categorization Impressive perceptual categorization in first year Conceptual categorization in second year Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

18 Memory Improvements Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

19 Development of Categorization
Perceptual Based on similar overall appearance or prominent part Conceptual Based on common function or behavior Later add event categories Figure Categorical distinction made by 9- to 11-month-olds Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

20 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
Social contexts (other people) contribute to cognitive development Zone of Proximal Development – tasks child cannot do alone but can learn to do with help of more skilled partners Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

21 Toddler/Infant Intelligence Tests
Bayley Scales Cognitive Language Motor Social-Emotional Adaptive Behavior HOME Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

22 Meaning of Different IQ Scores
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

23 Normal Distribution of IQ Scores
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

24 Signs of Developmentally-Appropriate Child Care
Adult-child interactions Teacher qualifications Relationships with parents Licensing & accreditation Physical setting Group size Caregiver-child ratio Daily activities Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

25 IQ Improvement from Early Intervention Programs
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

26 Three Theories of Language Development
Behaviorist Learned through Operant conditioning (reinforcement) Imitation Nativist Inborn Language Acquisition Device (LAD) biologically prepares infants to learn rules of language Interactionist Inner capacities and environment work together Social context is important Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

27 Getting Ready to Talk First speech sounds Becoming a communicator
Cooing Babbling Becoming a communicator Joint attention Give- and-take Preverbal gestures Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

28 Starting to Talk First Words Two-Word Utterances Underextension
Overextension Two-Word Utterances Telegraphic Speech Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

29 Individual Differences in Language Development
Environment Child-Directed Speech (CDS) Gender Personality Language Style Referential Expressive Language Delay Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

30 Supporting Early Language Learning
Infants Respond to coos and babbles Establish joint attention Use child-directed speech Play social games Toddlers Play make-believe together Have frequent conversations Read often and talk about books Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

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