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Development Through the LifespanChapter 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Piaget’s Theory: SchemesPsychological structures Organized ways of making sense of experience Change with age Action-based sensorimotor patterns Later move to “thinking before acting” pattern – creative and deliberate Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Building Schemes Adaptation Assimilation AccommodationBuilding schemes through direct interaction with environment Assimilation Using current schemes to interpret external world Accommodation Adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit environment Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Using Assimilation and AccommodationEquilibrium and Disequilibrium Use assimilation during equilibrium Disequilibrium prompts accommodation Organization Internal rearranging and linking schemes Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Sensorimotor Stage Birth to 2 yearsBuilding schemes through sensory and motor exploration Circular reactions Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Sensorimotor SubstagesReflexive Schemes Birth –1 mo. Newborn reflexes Primary Circular Reactions 1–4 months Simple motor habits centered around own body Secondary Circular Reactions 4–8 months Repeat interesting effects in surroundings Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions 8–12 months Intentional, goal-directed behavior; object permanence Tertiary Circular Reactions 12–18 months Explore properties of objects through novel actions Mental Representations 12 months – 2 years Internal depictions of objects or events; deferred imitation Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Object Permanence Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight According to Piaget, develops in Substage 4 Not yet complete: A-not-B search error Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Mental RepresentationsInternal, mental depictions of objects, people, events, information Can manipulate with mind Allow deferred imitation and make-believe play Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Violation of Expectations MethodCopyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Deferred Imitation Piaget: Develops about 18 months Newer research:6 weeks – facial imitation 6 – 9 months – copy actions with objects 12 – 14 months – imitate rationally 18 months – imitate intended, but not completed, actions Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Evaluation of the Sensorimotor StageDevelop when Piaget suggested Object search A-not-B Make-believe play Develop earlier than Piaget suggested Object permanence Deferred imitation Categorization Problem solving by analogy Some suggest infants are born with core knowledge in several domains of thought Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Core Knowledge PerspectiveBorn with innate, special-purpose knowledge systems Core domains of thought Core domains allow quick grasp of related information Support rapid early development Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Suggested Domains of Core KnowledgeLinguistic Psychological Physical Numerical Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Testing Babies’ Numerical KnowledgeCopyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Infants’ Numerical KnowledgeInfants may be able to: Discriminate quantities up to 3 Do simple arithmetic Findings are controversial Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Store Model of Information ProcessingCopyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Information-Processing ImprovementsAttention Efficiency, ability to shift focus improve Less attraction to novelty, better sustained attention after first year Memory Retention intervals lengthen Recall appears by 1 year; excellent in second year Categorization Impressive perceptual categorization in first year Conceptual categorization in second year Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Memory Improvements Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Development of CategorizationPerceptual Based on similar overall appearance or prominent part Conceptual Based on common function or behavior Later add event categories Figure Categorical distinction made by 9- to 11-month-olds Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural TheorySocial contexts (other people) contribute to cognitive development Zone of Proximal Development – tasks child cannot do alone but can learn to do with help of more skilled partners Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Toddler/Infant Intelligence TestsBayley Scales Cognitive Language Motor Social-Emotional Adaptive Behavior HOME Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Meaning of Different IQ ScoresCopyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Normal Distribution of IQ ScoresCopyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Signs of Developmentally-Appropriate Child CareAdult-child interactions Teacher qualifications Relationships with parents Licensing & accreditation Physical setting Group size Caregiver-child ratio Daily activities Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
IQ Improvement from Early Intervention ProgramsCopyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Three Theories of Language DevelopmentBehaviorist Learned through Operant conditioning (reinforcement) Imitation Nativist Inborn Language Acquisition Device (LAD) biologically prepares infants to learn rules of language Interactionist Inner capacities and environment work together Social context is important Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Getting Ready to Talk First speech sounds Becoming a communicatorCooing Babbling Becoming a communicator Joint attention Give- and-take Preverbal gestures Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Starting to Talk First Words Two-Word Utterances UnderextensionOverextension Two-Word Utterances Telegraphic Speech Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Individual Differences in Language DevelopmentEnvironment Child-Directed Speech (CDS) Gender Personality Language Style Referential Expressive Language Delay Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Supporting Early Language LearningInfants Respond to coos and babbles Establish joint attention Use child-directed speech Play social games Toddlers Play make-believe together Have frequent conversations Read often and talk about books Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Development Through the Lifespan
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, PART 1
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada6-1 Chapter 6: Cognition in Infants and Toddlers 6.1 Piaget’s Theory 6.2 Information Processing 6.3 Language MODULES.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood This multimedia product and.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Infants, Children, and Adolescents Chapter 6 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood.
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COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY
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