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Development Through the Lifespan

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1 Development Through the Lifespan
Chapter 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Physical Development in Early Childhood
Body Growth Slows Shape becomes more streamlined Skeletal Growth Continues New growth centers Lose baby teeth Asynchronies Brain, lymph nodes grow fastest

3 Brain Development in Early Childhood
Frontal lobe areas for planning and organization develop. Left hemisphere active Language skills Handedness Linking areas of the brain develop Cerebellum, reticular formation, corpus callosum

4 Influences on Physical Growth and Health
Heredity and Hormones Growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone Emotional Well-Being Psychosocial dwarfism Nutrition Infectious Disease Immunization Childhood Injuries

5 Factors Related to Childhood Injuries
Individual Differences Gender Temperament Poverty, low parental education More children in the home Societal conditions International differences

6 Motor Skill Development in Early Childhood
Gross Motor Skills Walking, running smoother Catching, throwing, swinging, riding Fine Motor Skills Self-help: dressing, eating Drawing

7 Progression of Drawing Skills
Scribbles – during 2nd year First Representational Forms Label already-made drawings – around age 3 Draw boundaries and people – 3–4 years More Realistic Drawings – preschool to school age Early Printing – Ages 3–5

8 Piaget’s Preoperational Stage
Ages 2 to 7 Gains in Mental Representation Make-believe Play Limitations in Thought — Cannot Perform Mental Operations Egocentrism Conservation Hierarchical Classification

9 Limits on Conservation
Centration – Focus on one aspect and neglect others Irreversibility – Cannot mentally reverse a set of steps

10 Early Childhood Development of Make-Believe
With age, make-believe gradually becomes: More detached from real life conditions Less self-centered More complex Sociodramatic Play

11 Piagetian Class Inclusion Problem

12 Follow-Up Research on Preoperational Thought
Egocentric Thought Can adjust language to others and take others’ perspectives in simple situations. Animistic thinking comes from incomplete knowledge of objects. Illogical Thought Can do simplified conservation Can reason by analogy Use causal expressions Categorization Everyday knowledge is categorized. Appearance versus reality Make-believe helps children tell the difference. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004

13 Educational Principles Derived from Piaget’s Theory
Discovery learning Sensitivity to children’s readiness to learn Developmentally appropriate practice Acceptance of individual differences

14 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory and Early Childhood
Private Speech Helps guide behavior Gradually becomes more silent Zone of Proximal Development Scaffolding supports children’s learning. Assisted discovery and peer collaboration also help children learn.

15 Model of Information Processing System

16 Improvements in Information Processing
Attention Planning Memory Memory Strategies Everyday Experiences Theory of Mind Metacognition Emerging Literacy Mathematical Reasoning Ordinality, Counting, and Cardinality

17 Development of Theory of Mind
Awareness of Mental Life – infancy – age 3 Mastery of False Beliefs – around age 4

18 Individual Differences in Early Childhood Mental Development
Factors Contributing to Individual Differences: Home environment Quality of child care, preschool or kindergarten Child-centered versus academic Early intervention programs Television Educational TV

19 Child Care Arrangements for Preschoolers

20 Language Development in Early Childhood
Vocabulary Fast-mapping Grammar Overregularization Conversation Pragmatics Supporting Language Development Expansions Recasts

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