2 Where?During the Middle Ages, African civilizations developed in Sub-Saharan west and east Africa
3 AxumLocated in modern day Ethiopia and near the Nile River
4 AxumReligionAksumites originally believed in one god called Mahrem and they were also animistsThey often used animals for sacrificeTrade and merchants brought along a new religion
5 AksumReligionChristianity became prevalent throughout the Aksum kingdomEzana converted all the people of the kingdom to ChristianityThis allowed for Ethiopia (where Aksum was located) to be home to millions of Christians
6 ZimbabweLocated near the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers and the Indian OceanThe people of Zimbabwe we called ShonaLand was great for farming and raising cattle
7 “Great Zimbabwe”City stood near a major trade route that linked the gold fields with Sofala (major trading city)The people of this city gained control of these trade routes and taxed the traders who traveled these routesThis caused “Great Zimbabwe” to become the economic, political, and religious center of its empire
8 West African kingdomsWest African Kingdoms during the Middle Ages include Ghana, Mali, and SonghaiThey are located near the Niger River and the Sahara
9 GhanaBy 700s A.D Ghana becomes a kingdom in West Africa
10 Gold and Salt Two most important trade items Gold came from the forest region south of the Savanna (Found in 100s of feet in earth or in rivers)The Sahara contained salt deposits
11 Mali 1235, Mali emerges as a kingdom Its founders were located south of Ghana, but as Ghana grew weaker and Mali gained power, Ghana is taken overMali is now in control of the gold and salt trade routes.
12 Timbuktu An important city of the Mali kingdom Used for trading and it attracted Muslim judges, doctors, religious leaders, and scholarsThey came because of Timbuktu’s outstanding mosques and universities
13 Songhai In the 1400s, the Songhai empire came about The Songhai people gradually took over the territory of the previous kingdom MaliTimbuktu and Djenne are in Songhai’s controlAs a result, Songhai gains control of the gold and salt trade
14 Religion Islam spread south of the Sahara due to trade Most rulers converted to Islam (Ghana)Even though the rulers are Muslim, most people did not convert, but maintained their animistic beliefs.Islam’s growth encouraged the spread of literacy.