Presentation on theme: "Accelerated World History October 21, 2015. Warm Up – October 21, 2015 In early African societies, people incorporated elements of a religion in which."— Presentation transcript:
Warm Up – October 21, 2015 In early African societies, people incorporated elements of a religion in which spirits play an important role in regulating daily life into their spirituality. This religion is called: A. Buddhism B. Animism C. Judaism D. Zen
Agenda Early African Kingdoms Reminders: Check the website for updates and new guided readings.
Essential Question Why do we know so little about Africa?
East Africa The societies of East African participated in the Indian Ocean trade network & were shaped by cultural diffusion: The kingdom of Aksum trade with Persia, India, Arabia, & Rome; Aksum became a Christian kingdom
East Africa Arab merchants introduced Islam to East African trade cities The mix of African & Arab cultures led to a new Swahili language Towns had mosques & were ruled by a Muslim sultan But many people kept their traditional religious beliefs
West Africa West Africa was were shaped by the trans- Saharan trade network: West Africans had large deposits of gold, and traded it for salt The gold-salt trade connected North & West Africa
West Africa The gold-salt trade increased cultural diffusion with Muslim merchants: Islam was introduced in West Africa & slowly gained converts
Introduction Three powerful empires developed in African from about ~1000 A.D. – 1500 A.D. They all developed in the Sahel The savanna below the Sahara (see map) These empires included Ghana, Mali & Songhai
Empire of Ghana Around 700 A.D., Ghana became a kingdom in West Africa Its rulers grew rich by taxing goods that traders carried through the territory Salt & gold were the most important trade items Only kings could own gold nuggets Ghana’s king acted as a: Religious leader Chief judge Military leader
Empire of Ghana By 1000 A.D., Ghana’s rulers had converted to Islam Previously, Ghana kings had been animists Animism = belief that spirits living in animals, plants & natural forces played an important role in daily life Most of the population remained animists In 1076 A.D. Ghana empire collapsed due to the disruption of trade
Empire of Mali 1235 A.D., the Mali Empire developed Like Ghana, the people of Mali depended on trade (specifically gold) Located just to the south/east of where Mali had been 1st great leader of Mali was Sundiata Emperors called mansa Career began w/ a series of military victories Ushered in a long period of peace/prosperity Died in 1255
Empire of Mali After Sundiata’s death, many of Mali’s leaders became Muslim Most famous Muslim leader was Mansa Musa Doubled the size of the Mali Empire Went on hajj in 1324 Brought LOTS of gold to Egypt along the way Caused severe inflation for 10 years Built mosques in Timbuktu Made it an important religious/trading center
Empire of Songhai Mali’s empire declined in the 1400s, and the Songhai arose shortly after Famous leaders Sunni Ali Expanded empire Conquered Timbuktu Askia Muhammad (Sunni Ali’s son) Set up tax system Chose able officials 1591, Moroccans defeated Songhai using guns/cannons