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Introduction to Geography

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Geography"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Geography

2 The Global World Artic ASIA N. America Europe Atlantic Ocean Africa
Antarctica Australia Atlantic Ocean Pacific Indian Artic Southern Ocean

3 The New Global World – Region
Artic Ocean Russia and Eurasian Republic N. America Europe Atlantic Ocean E. Asia Pacific Ocean Modern Middle East S. Asia M. America Sub-Sahara Africa Pacific Ocean N. America Indian Ocean S. E. Asia S. America Europe Oceania Australia Southern Ocean Antarctica

4 What is Geography? Geography is the study of everything on Earth, from rocks and rainfall to people and places. Geographers study how the natural environment influences people, how people’s activities affect Earth, and how the world is changing. Geographer’s must look at many different things, including cities, cultures, population, political, economical, natural resources, and the physical environment. Geographer’s focus on “where” things are and “why” they are there Geographer’s organize materials by place, because they understand that something happening at one place can result from something that happened elsewhere and can affect conditions at other places

5 What is Geography? Misconceptions of geography:
Merely memorizing lists of countries and state capitals Studying rocks and soil Looking at maps and pictures of faraway places Section I

6 History of Geography The word geography, invented by the ancient Greek scholar Eratosthenes. Geography is based on two Greek words, Geo meaning “Earth” and graphy meaning “to write”. Geography is one of the oldest human activities. An early geographic activity was as simple as a man taking a journey – deep into the jungle or desert, climbing a hill or mountain or merely crossing a river and inform his/her fellow tribesmen of what was on the other side. Today everyone uses geography in some form – drawing a map to their house, watching the weather channel and even judging migration.

7 The Six Essential Elements
The World in Spatial Terms: Dividing the World into manageable sizes. Continents Oceans Grids Hemispheres N. America S. America Africa ASIA Europe Antarctica Australia Atlantic Ocean Pacific Indian Artic

8 The Six Essential Elements
The world in Spatial Terms includes Location (Where a place is.) Location can be described two ways: 1. Absolute Location: The exact location on the Earth. This is determined by using the imaginary geographic grid of parallels (lines of latitude) and meridians (lines of longitude). Prime Meridian Equator Equator Section I

9 The Six Essential Elements
The Second way Location can be described is in terms of Relative Location: It is merely a reference to a place by using a more familiar location. Example: Next to Publix, On Wickham, in Florida, Off the Coast of Florida, three houses down on the left Section I

10 The Six Essential Elements
Places and Regions: Places: the description of the characteristics (human or physical) of a location. Such as landforms, climate, animal life, human population. Regions: A number of places united that have one or more common characteristic. Rocky Mountains, tornado alley, The West Coast, The Great Plains Section I

11 The Six Essential Elements
Places and Regions: Section I

12 The Six Essential Elements
Physical Systems: All the physical activity of the environment. Flooding, earthquakes, mountains, rivers, volcanoes, and weather patterns.

13 The Six Essential Elements
Human Systems: People are central to geography. Our activities, movements and settlements shape Earth’s surface. Farming vs ranching Migration patterns Wars Governments Religions Movement-People move for many reasons including new jobs, to attend special schools, to be closer to family, to move away from a place (Dust Bowl), or to move to a place (Gold Rush) The movement of ideas or behaviors from one place to another is called diffusion.

14 The Six Essential Elements
Environment and Society: Human-Environment Interaction Geographers study how people and their surroundings affect each other Geographers study how humans depend on their physical environment to survive Geographers study how humans change their behavior to be better suited to an environment How humans change the environment Flooding Farming Hurricane Katrina The Dust Bowl

15 The Six Essential Elements
The uses of geography: Putting it all together. Analyzing past events to help us prevent future events. Developing transportations networks Migration

16 Who Uses Geography Everyone!
We use it by finding our way to a new place – a friend, restaurant, amusement park When we watch the news – Israel invades Lebanon Planning a vacation What to wear – shorts vs pants, jacket, sunglasses Athletes – winds, sun, rain, temperature, slope of the field Professions: Cartographers – the study of maps and mapmaking, maps are an essential part of geography Meteorology – the study of weather, forecasting Government – FBI, CIA military study countries cultures and physical characteristics Teachers – develop new geographers Section I

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