3 GQ: What methods do geographers use to show the Earth’s surface?
4 1. Displaying the Earth’s Surface Early models of the Earth were flatSailors proved it was roundGlobes – spherical models of the EarthMost accurate size, shape, distance, directionHard to carry
5 Maps – flat drawings of all or parts of the Earth Show small areas in great detailShow specific informationCan’t show accurate size, shape, distance, direction togetherEasy to carryReflect: Describe how an explorer could set sail thinking the Earth was flat and return knowing it was round.
6 Hemispheres – “half spheres” Equator – circles the middle of the EarthDivides Northern and Southern hemispheresPrime Meridian – runs pole to poleDivides Eastern and Western hemispheres
7 Finding Location Grid system – imaginary lines on maps and globes Latitude – parallel to EquatorMeasure distance in degrees north or southLongitude – parallel to Prime MeridianMeasure distance in degrees east or westAbsolute location – exact spot where latitude and longitude lines meet
12 GQ: How do geographers use the five themes and six essential elements of geography?
13 Five Themes of Geography Theme – a topic that connects ideasLocationPlaceHuman-Environment InteractionMovementRegions
14 2. Six Essential Elements The World In Spatial TermsStudies where a certain place is locatedRaises awareness of the world around youPlaces and RegionsDescribes:Natural features – weather, animals, landformsHuman features – language, way of life
15 Physical Systems Human Systems Analyzes how weather systems shape Earth’s surfaceVolcanoes, glaciers, hurricanesStudies how plants and animals depend on each other for survivalHuman SystemsWhy humans choose to settle in certain placesHow they move and exchange goods or ideas
16 Environment and Society How the environment affects way of lifeHow humans affect the environmentUses of GeographyHelps understand how people, places, and environments interact with each otherReflect: How would living far from a water source affect the way a community lives?
18 3. Types of Maps Physical Maps – show land and water features Use colors to show different featuresHas a key to explain each colorPolitical Maps – show names and borders of countriesLocation of cities and other man made featuresAlso show physical features
19 Examples: Special Purpose Maps – show specific kinds of information climatenatural resourcesroadspopulationhistorical informationReflect: Draw a special purpose road map of your surrounding neighborhood.
20 How To Read Maps Map Key – explains information shown on the map symbols, lines, and colorsMap Scale – measuring line that shows distance representedHelps calculate distance between points on the mapCardinal DirectionsNorth, South, East, West