The Five Themes of Geography How geographers look at the world
Why study geography? To understand more about the changing world we live in To learn more about the people and cultures of the world so that we can better understand each other To look at the connection between the earth and those who live on it
Elements of Geography 1. The World in Spatial Terms (Location) 2. Places and Regions 3. Physical Systems 4. Human Systems 5. Environment and Society 6. Uses of Geography
What are the Five Themes of Geography? The ideas that geographers use to study the world and the people that live in it. Using all five themes helps us to truly understand the geography of a place The five themes are: location, place, region, movement and human interaction with the environment
Location Asks the question: Where is it? Here’s Madagascar!
We can use absolute location, which uses a system to find an exact spot on the earth. Examples: latitude and longitude, address with zip codes, GPS, map coordinates
Grid System Equator, Prime Meridian, and other lines of latitude and longitude cross one another to form a pattern You can use these to find absolute locationYou can use these to find absolute location Precise locationPrecise location
We can use relative location, which uses descriptions and comparisons to find places on the earth. Example: I live in the condominiums near Pennichuck off of Manchester Road.
Place Asks: What are the characteristics of a location? What is the place like? Asks: What are the characteristics of a location? What is the place like? Describes what it is like there Describes what it is like there For example, how would you describe Pennichuck Middle School? For example, how would you describe Pennichuck Middle School?
We can use physical features: Climate – temperature, rainfall Landforms – plateaus, plains, rivers Topography - elevation Flora - plants Fauna - animals Resources – petroleum, gemstones, trees
We can use human characteristics Such as population statistics, economic activities, religion, language, government, traditions, etc.
Movement How do people, goods and ideas get from one place to another?
Examples of movement ► Trading products between countries ► Migration of people to new areas ► Buying clothes over the internet ► Flying to California to visit your relatives ► Coming to school on the bus this morning ► Buying oranges that come from Florida ► Watching the news for new information
Human Environment Interaction How do we use the earth? How have we changed the earth? How does the earth affect us?
Examples of Human Interaction with the Environment Growing corn in fields Growing corn in fields Mining iron ore from the earth Mining iron ore from the earth Building cities Building cities Fishing on Lake Sunapee Fishing on Lake Sunapee Cars using gasoline and polluting the air Cars using gasoline and polluting the air Natural Disasters destroying houses Natural Disasters destroying houses Deforestation of the Rain Forest so that homes can be built Deforestation of the Rain Forest so that homes can be built Cold weather causing us to dress warmly Cold weather causing us to dress warmly
Region How is this place similar to other places? Are there common characteristics between places?
Examples of Regions New England The Rocky Mountains Latin America The Southeast Biomes such as desert, woodlands, etc. Regions can share characteristics, culture, physical features, language, temperature, etc.