2 Chapter Outline Structures of Inequality Inequality in the United StatesExplanations of InequalityThe Determinants of Social Class PositionSocial Class and Social LifeSocial Class and Public Policy: Fighting Poverty
3 Inequality and Stratification Inequality becomes stratification when two conditions exist:Inequality is institutionalized, backed up both by social structures and social norms.Inequality is based on membership in a status (such as oldest son or blue collar worker) rather than on personal attributes.
4 Types of Stratification Structures Caste systems - dramatically represented in India. Mates, occupations, and social place are determined by one’s caste.Class systems permit social mobility through the attainment of achieved rather than ascribed statuses.
5 Marx Two classes: Bourgeoisie control wealth. Proletariat are used by them as a labor supply.
6 Weber Class is a relationship to the means of production. Status is related to lifestyle.Power is the ability to compel other people’s behavior.
8 Measuring Social Class Self-identification asks people to report their social class. Most people identify themselves as middle class.Socioeconomic status, or SES, is determined by looking at measures of education, occupation, and income.
9 Economic Inequality Especially pronounced in the United States. The rich get richer and the poor get poorer.The richer 20% currently hold 84% of all wealth.
10 Occupational Prestige Ratings ScorePhysician86Sociologist61Lawyer75Editor or Reporter60Architect73Librarian54Dentist72Electrician51Judge71Mechanic40C.E.O.70Barber36Veterinarian62Sales Clerk34
11 Conflict Explanation of Inequality Statuses and scarce resources are distributed on the basis of class struggle.Social inequality is rooted in the private ownership of the means of production.Modern conflict theory considers non-economic factors.
13 Changes in Lifestyles by Social Class in Middletown 192419771999% of mothers rising before 6 a.m. on workdaysBusiness class15%13%50%Working class932753% of mothers who work34277455887
14 Structural-functional Explanation of Inequality Rewards are distributed based on:The social importance of the task.The pleasantness of the task.The scarcity of the talent and ability necessary to perform the task.
16 Synthesis of Conflict and Structural-functional Theory Leonard Beeghley:Power is the main determinant of the distribution of scarce resources.Distribution is socially structured.Individual qualities, like achievement motivation and intelligence can alter the relationships of power.
17 The Rich, the Middle Class, the Working Class, and the Poor Upper class - (5% of the population) make more than $130,000 per year.Middle class - hold relatively stable jobs and have access to benefits.Working class - values and lifestyles are dissimilar to the middle class, but income levels may be higher.
18 Distinctions of Working Class Education is not valued as an end in itself.Lower job security and less access to benefits like health insurance.Leisure is valued above work, since work is seldom pleasant.Traditional gender roles are more often accepted and adhered to.
19 Who Are the Poor?Homeless - former mental patients, drug-abusers, and alcoholics, 25% are women with children.Disadvantaged, unemployed, unemployable, and caught in lives of misery.
20 % of State Residents Living Below Poverty Line, 2000–01