2 Social Stratification Every society has separated its members on the basis of certain characteristicsSocial Stratification: The division of people into categories, ranks or classesLevels and types of stratification vary from society to societyOften these division create social inequity- the unequal sharing of scarce resources and social rewards.
3 Types of Stratification Systems Caste System: a closed stratification system based on ascribe statusClass System: an open stratification system based on achieved status
4 Caste SystemIn a caste system, scarce resources and social rewards are distributed based on ascribe statusesA newborn child’s lifelong status-or caste- is determined at birth based on his/her parents’ casteEffort and talent cannot help the person move to a higher status
5 Class SystemIn a class system, the distribution of scarce resources and rewards is determined on the basis of achieved statusIndividuals have control over their place in the stratification systemTalent, effort and opportunity allow people to move up the social class ladder.
6 Elements of a Social Class Social classes group people by three elements:Wealth: A person’s assets (the value of everything owned) and income (money earned)Power: The ability to control the behavior of others, with or without their consentPrestige: The respect, honor, recognition, or courtesy someone receives from others in society.
7 There are 6 social classes in America: American Class SystemThere are 6 social classes in America:Upper ClassUpper Middle ClassLower Middle ClassWorking ClassWorking PoorUnderclass
8 Upper ClassThe Upper Class: 1% of the population and controls a great deal of the nation’s wealthTwo subgroups:Old Money: those who have inherited moneyNew Money: those who have recently become richThis class has a great deal of power and influence
9 Upper Middle ClassConsists of high-income business people and professionalsMost have college educations and advanced degrees
10 Lower Middle ClassHold white color jobs (work that does not require manual labor)Have jobs that require less education, so they have a lower incomeNursing, middle management, sales, small business owners
11 Working Class Hold blue color jobs (require manual labor) Work does not carry much prestigeFactory workers, tradespeople, service workers (secretaries, sales people)
12 Working Poor The lowest paying jobs, usually temporary or seasonal Housecleaning, farm work, day laboringMost are high school dropouts with low skills and education
13 UnderclassIndividuals or families that have experienced unemployment over several generationsSome do work, but undesirable, low-paying jobsChief source of income is public assistance (welfare)
14 Social Mobility The U.S. has an open class system Movement between or within social classes is possibleHorizontal mobility: Movement within a class; Move from one job to another of equal social rankingVertical mobility: Movement between classes either upward or downwardIntergenerational mobility: Status differences between generations in the same family;
15 The Poor Who is classified as poor depends on how “poverty” is defined Poverty: a standard of living that is below the minimum level considered adequate by societyPoverty is relative and varies by society
16 Characteristics that Affect Poverty Age: Children have the highest percentage in povertySex: 57% of poor are womenRace & Ethnicity: African Americans & Hispanics are more likely than whites to live in poverty