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Social Stratification

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Presentation on theme: "Social Stratification"— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Stratification

2 Social Stratification
Every society has separated its members on the basis of certain characteristics Social Stratification: The division of people into categories, ranks or classes Levels and types of stratification vary from society to society Often these division create social inequity- the unequal sharing of scarce resources and social rewards.

3 Types of Stratification Systems
Caste System: a closed stratification system based on ascribe status Class System: an open stratification system based on achieved status

4 Caste System In a caste system, scarce resources and social rewards are distributed based on ascribe statuses A newborn child’s lifelong status-or caste- is determined at birth based on his/her parents’ caste Effort and talent cannot help the person move to a higher status

5 Class System In a class system, the distribution of scarce resources and rewards is determined on the basis of achieved status Individuals have control over their place in the stratification system Talent, effort and opportunity allow people to move up the social class ladder.

6 Elements of a Social Class
Social classes group people by three elements: Wealth: A person’s assets (the value of everything owned) and income (money earned) Power: The ability to control the behavior of others, with or without their consent Prestige: The respect, honor, recognition, or courtesy someone receives from others in society.

7 There are 6 social classes in America:
American Class System There are 6 social classes in America: Upper Class Upper Middle Class Lower Middle Class Working Class Working Poor Underclass

8 Upper Class The Upper Class: 1% of the population and controls a great deal of the nation’s wealth Two subgroups: Old Money: those who have inherited money New Money: those who have recently become rich This class has a great deal of power and influence

9 Upper Middle Class Consists of high-income business people and professionals Most have college educations and advanced degrees

10 Lower Middle Class Hold white color jobs (work that does not require manual labor) Have jobs that require less education, so they have a lower income Nursing, middle management, sales, small business owners

11 Working Class Hold blue color jobs (require manual labor)
Work does not carry much prestige Factory workers, tradespeople, service workers (secretaries, sales people)

12 Working Poor The lowest paying jobs, usually temporary or seasonal
Housecleaning, farm work, day laboring Most are high school dropouts with low skills and education

13 Underclass Individuals or families that have experienced unemployment over several generations Some do work, but undesirable, low-paying jobs Chief source of income is public assistance (welfare)

14 Social Mobility The U.S. has an open class system
Movement between or within social classes is possible Horizontal mobility: Movement within a class; Move from one job to another of equal social ranking Vertical mobility: Movement between classes either upward or downward Intergenerational mobility: Status differences between generations in the same family;

15 The Poor Who is classified as poor depends on how “poverty” is defined
Poverty: a standard of living that is below the minimum level considered adequate by society Poverty is relative and varies by society

16 Characteristics that Affect Poverty
Age: Children have the highest percentage in poverty Sex: 57% of poor are women Race & Ethnicity: African Americans & Hispanics are more likely than whites to live in poverty

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