Presentation on theme: "Social Stratification"— Presentation transcript:
1 Social Stratification CHAPTER 8Social Stratification
2 True or False:Social status in an society is basically determined by individual achievements and abilitiesFalse - some rank by attributes (race, ancestry, gender, wealth, power)The most important predictor for social status is the status of your parents
3 True or False:Except for occasional success stories, most Americans remain in the same social class their entire livesTrue
4 True or False:Americans of all classes have similar life spans and access to similar health care, housing, education, and other resourceFalse
5 True or False:In the United States, the gap between the rich and the poor is widening.True - average CEO makes 419x as average production worker (In 1980 that ratio was 42 to 1)
6 True or False:A full-time worker can still live in poverty in the USA.TrueSomeone making $10, working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks a year, will make $20,000, just before the poverty line for a family of four. (And minimum wage is less than $8).
7 True or False:Stratification systems differ little from society to society.
8 True or False:Applicants should be drug-tested before receiving welfare benefits.
10 True or False:The American class system is unfair.
11 True or False:Raising the minimum wage would help the poverty rate in America.
12 Social Stratification The division of society into categories, ranks, or classes based on certain characteristics
13 Social InequalityThe unequal sharing of scarce resources and social rewardsIf you were going to stratify a society - how would you distribute scarce resources and social rewards?
14 Open vs Closed Systems Open: movement between strata is possible Closed: impossible - assigned a status at birth
15 Class SystemDistribution of scarce resources and rewards based on achieved statusesMarx - bourgeoisie & proletariatsOnly determining factor - ownership of property and the means of productionWeber - Class consists of power, property, & prestige
16 Wealth Made up of assets - value of everything one owns (bonds, land) income -money earned through salaries, investments, etc.
17 PowerAbility to control the behavior of others, with or without their consentCan be based on force, the possession of a special skill or type of knowledge, social status, personal characteristics, or customs and traditions
18 PrestigeThe respect, honor, recognition, or courtesy an individual receives from other members of societyDetermining factors: income, occupation, education, family background, area of residence, possessions, club memberships
19 Caste System Elaborate norms govern interaction among castes Exogamy - marriage outside one’s caste forbiddenEndogamy - marriage within one’s own social caste
20 Social ClassThe grouping of people with similar levels of wealth, power, and prestigeUse socioeconomic status
21 The American Class System The Upper Class - 1% of populationOld vs New moneyMany are traditionalists and politically conservativeConspicuous consumption by the newly rich
22 The Upper Middle ClassMostly high-income businesspeople & professionalsMost have college ed & advanced degreesMembership based on income not assetsCareer-orientedPolitically & socially activePower & influence limited to community level
23 The Lower Middle Class White-collar jobs Many jobs require less educationLive comfortable life but must work hard to keep what they haveMany hold traditional values & are politically conservative
24 The Working Class Manual labor jobs & pink-collar jobs Some paid as much as lower middle class, but not as prestigiousFew financial reserves - unexpected crisis can push them into lower class
25 The Working Poor Lowest paying jobs - often temporary / seasonal Work hard but rarely make a living wageDepend on govt. support programsHigh school dropoutsNot involved politicallyOften purposefully disenfranchised
26 The Underclass Chief source of income usually public assistance Day-to-day struggleSome work, but usually very low-paidUnemployment and poverty
27 The GameYou all represent the country’s population. And everyone in the country has a chance to become wealthy and move into the upper class.
28 To move into the upper class, all you must do is throw your wadded up paper into the bin while sitting in your seat.
29 ConclusionThe closer you were to the recycling bin, the better your odds.This is what privilege looks like.Who complained?
30 Your Job (for life) - -As students who are receiving an education - - is to be aware of your privilege. And use this particular privilege called “education” to do your best to achieve great things, all the while advocating for those in the rows behind you.
31 Social Mobility Movement between or within social classes Three types: horizontal, vertical, and intergenerational
32 Horizontal Mobility Movement within a social class Example - accountant moves to new firm
33 Vertical Mobility Movement between social classes - upward or downward Example - teacher becomes superintendent
34 Intergenerational Mobility Status differences between generations in the same familyA special form of vertical mobilityExample: son of mechanic becomes a lawyerMost Americans achieve higher occupational status than their parents, but stay in same social class
35 PovertyStandard of living below the minimum level considered adequate by societyPoverty level - minimum income (adjusted each year)
36 American Poverty Age - Children overrepresented in poverty Hispanic / African American kids 3x more likely to be impoverishedSex - Over half of all poor are womenAfrican American / Hispanic women more likelyRace & Ethnicity - African Americans & Hispanics much more likely
37 The Effects of PovertyLife Chances - life expectancy, health, housing, educationPoor children 60% more likely to die in first year than those not born into poverty