Presentation on theme: "Unit 3 Social Inequality"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 3 Social Inequality Chapter 8Social StratificationSection 1Systems of Stratification
2 Main IdeaMany societies rank their members based on certain criteria, this process is called social stratification
3 Learning ObjectivesIdentify the characteristics of the two types of stratification systemsIdentify the three dimensions of social stratificationUnderstand how the major theories explaining social stratification differ
4 Types of Stratification Social stratification is the division of society into categories, ranks, or classes.Both ascribed and achieved statuses can be used to determine social standing.These divisions lead to social inequality—the unequal sharing of resources and social rewards.Stratification systems lie on a continuum of open to closed systems according to how easy or difficult it is to change statuses.
5 Types of Stratification 1) Caste Systems: Closed stratification systemResources and social rewards distributed based on ascribed statusesLifelong status determined by that of parentsProhibits exogamy, or marriage outside of caste; promotes endogamy, or marriage within casteCaste system in India has been challenged but still plays a major role
7 Types of Stratification 2) Class Systems: more open than closed stratification systemResources and rewards distributed according to achieved statusesSome control over place in societyMarx divided society into:Bourgeoisie, or the owners of the means of productionProletariat, or workers who sell their labor in exchange for wagesWeber described three factors of class:PropertyPrestigePower
8 Describe the continuum of open and closed stratification systems. Reading CheckContrastDescribe the continuum of open and closed stratification systems.Answer: closed caste systems at extreme of continuum with no social mobility, class systems closer to other end of continuum depending on how much mobility they offer
9 The Dimensions of Social Stratification Many sociologists adopt Weber’s view of social stratification. They define Social Class as a grouping of people with similar levels of wealth, power, and prestige.
10 The Dimensions of Social Stratification Wealth: equals assets—value of everything the person owns—and income—money earned through salaries, investment returns, or other capital gainsIn the United States, 1 percent of population controls one-third of wealth
11 The Dimensions of Social Stratification Power: is the ability to control the behavior of others, with or without their consentCan be based on force, a special skill or type of knowledge, particular social status, personal characteristics, or custom and tradition
12 The Dimensions of Social Stratification Prestige: is the respect, honor, recognition, or courtesy an individual receivesOccupation, education, family background, and area of residence are common factors in most societies
13 The Dimensions of Social Stratification To rank people according to wealth, power, and prestige, sociologists often calculate people’sSocioeconomic status/class(SEC/SES)a rating that combines social factors such as educational level, occupational prestige, and place of residence with the economic factor of income.