2 What is a Monarchy?a form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual (the monarch), who is the head of state, often for life or until abdication, based often on hereditaryAround 1450, Europe saw a rise of new monarchsskilled in diplomacy and control over their realmsOccurred in response to a decline in the power of the Church and nobles
3 Characteristics of the New Monarchies: 14th--16th centuries Make law and enact order.Often limited the power of the nobility by enlisting the support of the middle class in the townsMonarchs rewarded middle class for their service and loyalty to the crownUtilized taxation to run countrytarget nobility to check powerTamed the aristocracynew nobles based on official capacity “nobles of the robe”Controlled all warfareReligious control over the clergy
4 New National ArmiesMonarchs no longer relied on nobility to raise troopshired mercenary soldiersArmies became “professional,”fought for pay and spoils rather than honorCavalry (nobles)was less importantinfantry and artillery was the focusLarge armies created a greater need for taxes
5 The Rise of New Monarchies As a group read your sections per your country.On the posterboard, highlight the steps that occurred in the consolidation of powerIdentify any laws/institutions created to control the nobles by the monarch
9 EnglandDefeat from Hundred Years War led to economic hardship and power struggle for monarchyThe War of the Roses erupted in the 1450s between House of Lancaster and House of YorkHenry Tudor (VII) defeated Richard III and established the Tudor dynastyEstablished the Star Chamber—a court to control the nobles; no jury and torture was common.
10 Tudors Gain PowerEnded livery (personal symbols of loyalty to a lord) and maintenance (payment of soldiers for a private army)Ended the private armies of the noblesHenry VIII took control of the Catholic Church and took confiscated its lands.
13 FranceAfter the war, economically devastated, farmland destroyed, lives lost, but national UNITY!!Nationalism and strong monarchyValois family reduced power of nobility by use of taille (tax on land and property)King Charles VII took power away from Estates-General and secured power over Church
14 King Louis XI (“the spider”) used the army to defeat the Duke of Burgandy King Louis XI imposed the taille—tax on property—to keep the nobles in line and gabelle—gov’t salt mononpolySecured annual revenue for the gov’tFrancis I, a Renaissance king, gained control of the French clergy by an agreement with the pope—Concordat of Bologna
18 Spain1469—marriage of Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon united two dynasties under the Hapsburg familyDid not create a unified nationtogether secured borders, ventured abroad militarily, Christianized SpainStrengthened royal authority and army
19 Created hermandades (political units) to control the aristocracy Completed reconquista of lands held by Muslims/MoorsInquisition—monitored the political and religious atmosphere of Spain1492 expelled JewsPromoted voyages of explorationKing Charles I will inherit throne of HRE and will became most powerful monarch in Europe
21 HRE: Germany and ItalyHoly Roman Empire: Germany & Italy exceptions to 15th-c. centralizing trendthe many (princes) fought off the one (emperor)divided into some 300 autonomous entities
22 Germany1356 Golden Bull between Emperor Charles IV & major territorial rulers: established seven-member electoral college; elected emperor & provided some trans-regional unity;Emperor’s power severely limited by Reichstag—legislative body of German states
23 RussiaYaroslav the Wise developed Kiev as a cultural/political center; established contacts w/ the WestSocial division: Freeman [clergy, army, boyars (landowners), townspeople, peasants] and slaves (prisoners of war and debtors)
24 1223 Russia fell to Ghengis Khan and the Mongols (Golden Horde) Mongols dominated Russian society and politics1380 Grand Duke Dimitri of Moscow defeated the Mongol force
25 Ivan III or “the Great” (r. 1442—1505) Ended Mongol domination over Russia in 1480Began modernization of Russia by importing many Greek scholars, craftsmen, architects, and artistsMoscow called the “Third Rome”
26 Revival of Monarchyafter 1450, divided feudal monarchies unified national monarchiesrise of towns, alliance of growing business classes with kings—broke bonds of feudal societythe sovereign state: powers of taxation, war making, law enforcement no longer reside with semiautonomous vassals, but with monarch & royal agents; taxes, wars, laws become national rather than regional matters
27 Revival of Monarchy (cont.) France: two cornerstones of 15th-c. nation-building:collapse of English Empire in France after Hundred Years’ War, 1453defeat of Charles the Bold of Burgundy, 1477—perhaps strongest political power in Europe at the timeCharles VII (r. 1422–1461), Louis XI (r. 1461–1483)—doubled territorySpain: 1469 marriage of Isabella of Castile & Ferdinand of Aragonbrought Spanish church under state control, ended toleration of Jews & Muslimssponsored Christopher Columbus, leading to Spanish Empire in Mexico & Peru, helping make Spain the dominant European power in 16th c.
28 Revival of Monarchy (cont.) Englandturmoil of Wars of the Roses, 1455–1485 (Lancaster vs. York)1485 Battle of Bosworth Field seats Henry VII, first Tudor monarchHenry brings nobles to heal with special royal court, the Star Chamber
29 The New Dynasties of Power England stability under the TudorsFrance consolidation of power by the Valois.Spain unification by marriage into the HabsburgsHR Empire different model: the cost of decentralization.
30 Revival of Monarchy in N. Europe Summarize the strategies of centralization by monarchs.Prepare summaries of each country’s challenges, responses, and results.