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The New Monarchies: (aka The Renaissance Monarchies) 15 c – 16 c Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H.S. Chappaqua, NY Ms. Snyder Culver City High School.

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Presentation on theme: "The New Monarchies: (aka The Renaissance Monarchies) 15 c – 16 c Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H.S. Chappaqua, NY Ms. Snyder Culver City High School."— Presentation transcript:

1 The New Monarchies: (aka The Renaissance Monarchies) 15 c – 16 c Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H.S. Chappaqua, NY Ms. Snyder Culver City High School Caution! Europe under construction!

2 Western Europe The Iberian Peninsula, the French territories, and the British Isles formed the westernmost borders of Europe Agriculturally, the French lands were the richest in all of Europe

3 Characteristics of the New Monarchies 1.Kings began to build institutions of modern states. 2.Growing reach made them “new”. 3.Able to raise and command armies, impose taxes, summon advisers to represent their will. 4.Growth of bureaucracies => more consolidated effective power. Role of advisers grew in importance. Imposed taxes on salt, wine, other goods

4 Characteristics of the New Monarchies 1.Offering lords noble titles and offices nobles dependent on monarchs for power and honor loyalty to the throne. 2.Armies raised against annoying nobles. 3.They enlisted the support of the middle class in the towns  tired of the local power of feudal nobles. 4.Rulers made laws and imposed administrative unity that hadn’t existed before.

5 Characteristics of the New Monarchies Advances in warfare made consolidation easier -- what could not be inherited or married could be conquered

6 EUROPE 1500

7 THE WESTERN POWERS No common pattern emerged in the consolidation of western European states England by administrative centralization, France by good fortune, and Spain by dynastic marriage

8 The Valois Dynasty in France

9 France in the 15 c – 16 c

10 Post Hundred Years War Charles VII (1422-1461) Royal Army Levied a taille (annual direct tax on land)

11 Louis XI “The Spider/Spider King” (r. 1461-1483)

12 Added territory: Burgundy France Comte Alsace-Lorraine Political Power Criticized by Machiavelli (Swiss Mer- cenaries)

13 LOUIS XI FAILS TO NAB LOW COUNTRIES Failed to gain the Burgandian Low Countries for France after the death of Charles the Bold in 1477 The marriage of Mary of Burgundy to Maximilian of Hapsburg was a significant turning point in European history It initiated the struggle for control of the Low Countries that lasted for more than two centuries

14 FRENCH FINANCES The long years of wars established the principle of royal taxation that was critical to nation building in France It allowed the crown to raise money for defense and consolidation Most of the tax burden fell to the commoners, the so-called Third Estate Taxes included the taille (land), gabelle (salt) and the aide (various goods including meat and wine)

15 Francis I (1515-1547) King through marriage Contact with Italy had brought Renaissance to France Educated with some humanist ideas

16 oPatron of the Arts oBrought Leonardo da Vinci to France oMuch of its art collection still in the Louvre today! oPalace of Fountainebleau oSymbol of grandeur

17 England Post-Hundred Years War War of the Roses (1455-1485) Rivalry for the throne Lancaster York


19 Tudor England 1485

20 THE TAMING OF ENGLAND Subduing the nobles was critical to the Tudors success in consolidating England With the natural defenses of an island nation, England could have been the first European nation to consolidate had it not been for noble ambition and a weak crown (see War of the Roses, 1455- 1485) Henry VII and his son Henry VIII put an end to dynastic instability and created a new nobility that owed their titles and loyalty to the Tudors

21 Henry VII, 1st Tudor King 1485-1509 Results of War of the Roses Restore royal prestige Dynastic marriages Court of Star Chamber To ensure fair enforcement of laws against prominent people Court of criminal equity (things that seemed illegal, but were technically legal) Deal with pesky nobles

22 The Habsburg Dynasty

23 THE MARRIAGES OF SPAIN Before the 16 th century there was little hope of a unified Spain The Spanish people were divided in several separate states The two dominant states were Castile, the largest and richest, and Aragon, which was composed of a number of quasi-independent regions

24 Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain The Madonna of the Monarchs

25 FERDINAND AND ISABELLA In 1469, teenagers Ferdinand (Aragon) and Isabella (Castile) exchanged wedding vows In 1479, the two crowns were united and the Catholic monarchs ruled the two kingdoms jointly and took the first steps toward forging a single Spanish state Ferdinand and Isabella, Artist: David Galchutt


27 THE RECONQUISTA The most notable achievement of the Spanish monarchs was the recovery of the lands that had been conquered by the Moors (what the Spanish called the Muslims)

28 RECONQUISTA COMPLETE The final stages of the reconquista began in 1482 and lasted a decade Waged as a holy war and funded in part by the pope and Christian princes of Europe Granada finally fell and the province was absorbed into Castile

29 Kingdoms of Spain: 1492

30 Empire of Charles V

31 The Empire of Philip II

32 The Holy Roman Empire: Late 1512

33 The Holy Roman Empire: Late 16 c

34 Central Europe in 1600

35 The Growth of the Ottoman Empire

36 The Battle of Lepanto, 1571

37 Eastern Europe in 1550

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