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Politics and the State During the Renaissance 1450-1521.

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Presentation on theme: "Politics and the State During the Renaissance 1450-1521."— Presentation transcript:

1 Politics and the State During the Renaissance 1450-1521

2 Introduction Strong monarchies were important in terms of centralizing and consolidating power – Argument as to why 100 Years’ War lasted so long – Nobles had more power than king – 100 Years’ War had turned into a civil war

3 Power Struggle Inspired by Ren. ideas (of the Greeks and Romans), many monarchs of the 15 th c. attempted to rebuild the strength of their power – Checked power of the nobles – Established peace in the country – Absolute monarchs: strong, total control was objective – “would rather be feared than loved” (Machiavelli) – France, England and Spain

4 France 100 Years’ War destroyed France, even though they won the war – Economically ruined – Land destroyed – Depopulated

5 Charles VII French monarchs of the day attempted to rebuild the country – Charles VII Ended the civil war Increased royal revenue through taxes: $ Built strong military (first permanent standing army) Limited power of church over the state (Pragmatic Sanction)

6 Louis XI (son of Charles VII) He built upon the practices of his father – Unified all independent principalities – Increased taxation – Controlled nobility – Concordat of Bologna Gave church some power back, but still allowed monarch to appoint church officials

7 England Like France, England had suffered the effects of the Black Plague, 100 Years’ War, and civil war – War of the Roses, 1455-1471 York family (white rose) and Lancaster family (red rose) – 2 branches of the Plantagenet Dynasty – Vied for succession to the throne – The York and Lancaster families and supporters fought a civil war – The ultimate victor would be Henry VII, a Tudor, who through his marriage to Elizabeth of York was able to establish a new ruling family in England- the Tudors.

8 Edward VII Main Focus of monarchs after Edward VII was to continue the time of peace in England and control the nobility – Richard III, Henry VII (Tudor family, Henry defeated Richard and established the Tudor dynasty) – Monarchs used diplomacy to avoid wars with neighbors Therefore, didn’t need to ask Parliament (legislative body, made up of nobles) for money Royal Council: Middle class officials that helped king manage countryside

9 The Tudors Tudor Family – Henry VII and descendants, ruled for 117 years – used local officials to help control country at local level – Focused on concerns of the middle class= popularity – Effectively created peace, rebuilt the strength of the monarchy and economy – No standing army – Focused on ruling diplomatically, rather than fighting expensive wars with neighboring countries Used the marriages of his children to secure peace with other nations. (i.e. eldest son Arthur married Catherine of Aragon- daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain; After Arthur’s death, she will marry his brother Henry VIII….more on this later)

10 Henry VII

11 Spain Spain, like the Italian peninsula, consisted of smaller, independent kingdoms (each with their own rulers) For many years, the Iberian Peninsula (what is now Spain and Portugal), had a common goal to reconquer (reconquista) the peninsula from the Moors (Muslims) and Jews

12 Government Problems Problem is that Spain is too divided – No governmental unity Marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon was an attempt unify the peninsula – Ferdinand and Isabella had trouble with aristocracy (nobles) hermandades: local councils of middle class people who helped with local control – Controlled church Could tax church and appoint church officials

13 Ferdinand of Aragon Isabella of Castile

14 Ethnic Cleansing 1492, Granada (southern Spain) was defeated – Last Muslim stronghold – Columbus was sent out that same year Jews – Many Jews in Spain had control of money, good jobs; led to jealousy – Forced to convert or leave – Converts were called new Christians – Inquisition was created to determine if conversions were real – One religion was important in fully controlling country – 1580, peninsula was fully unified

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