Presentation on theme: "Western Europe (Late Middle Ages) Rise of Nation States."— Presentation transcript:
Western Europe (Late Middle Ages) Rise of Nation States
Decline of the Church European monarchies consolidated power and began forming nation-states in the late medieval period. England France Spain Russia After being the most powerful force during the High Middle Ages, the Catholic Church was quickly losing its influence in the Late Middle Ages.
England ► William I “the Conqueror” (Duke of Normandy) ► Defeated the Celts, Angles, Saxons & Jutes in England at the Battle of Hastings (1066) ► He thus united most England and laid the foundations for a sovereign nation-state.
“Domesday Book” William I compiled the “Domesday Book” in 1086 which surveyed the people of England. He thereby contributed still further to the unification of England and thus laying the foundations for a sovereign nation-state
Henry II of England (1154-1189) Married Eleanor of Aquitaine and thereby extended the territory of England to include land in France. He also established a Court system which enforced a common set of laws. Common Law had its beginnings during the reign of Henry II. Henry’s style and energy were models for future monarchs.
King John of England (Son of Henry II) Was forced by nobles to sign the Magna Carta (1215). This document limited the King’s power by insisting that he consults with the nobles before raising taxes and/or waging war. It marks the beginning of England’s “democratic tradition.”
Parliament (1265) Parliament (1265) A British institution that provides for elected representation of the people in government. A British institution that provides for elected representation of the people in government. It is another example of England’s evolving Democratic Tradition. It is another example of England’s evolving Democratic Tradition. Parliament consists of a House of Lords (Nobles) and a House of Commons. Parliament consists of a House of Lords (Nobles) and a House of Commons. Gradually the House of Commons became the most powerful. Gradually the House of Commons became the most powerful.
France Hugh Capet established the French throne in Paris. His dynasty, the Capetian dynasty, gradually expanded their control over most of France.
Philip II “Augustus”(1180-1223) Expanded the kingdom of France by taking Normandy, Anjou, & Touraine from the British
King Louis IX (“St Louis”), 1226-1270 Devoutly Christian. Loved by his people. He convinced his subjects that the monarchy was essential to their happiness and well- being.
Philip IV “the Fair” (1300s) Established the Estates General - a feudal council which could advise the king while also pledging loyalty and submission. Philip IV also defied and arrested the Pope. Added to the decline of the Church power. A French papacy was established at Avignon which remained under French control from 1305-1377
Hundred Years’ War The “100 Years War” (1337-1453) was fought between England & France. The “100 Years War” (1337-1453) was fought between England & France. The most important cause was over territory in France. The most important cause was over territory in France. The Hundred Years’ War helped define England and France as nations. The Hundred Years’ War helped define England and France as nations.
Joan of Arc Under the “miraculous” leadership of Joan of Arc, France eventually won. England forever gave up claims to French territory. Joan of Arc led French troops to victory in the 100 years war. She was a girl-general She was later captured by the British and burned to death as a witch. ***Joan of Arc was a unifying factor for France.
Spain Muslims conquered Spain in the 700s, but Spanish leaders fought the Reconquista (1065-1500) and eventually drove them out. Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella of Castile and together they completed the Reconquista. Ferdinand and Isabella united all of Spain and expelled Muslim Moors. Led the Age of Exploration (late 1400s).
Russia Ivan III (the Great) threw off the rule of the Mongols, centralized power in Moscow, and expanded the Russian nation. He was the first Russian ruler to be formally crowned as czar. Ivan IV, called the Terrible (1530-84), grand duke of Moscow and czar of Russia, further centralized royal power. The first 13 years of Ivan's reign constitute one of the greatest periods of internal reform, external expansion, and centralization of state power in the history of Russia.
Power to Tsar After Ivan the Terrible, power was centralized in the hands of the tsar. The Orthodox Church influenced the unification.