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The Renaissance and the State Power of the Central Government By Mid 16C Charles V, Francis I and Henry VIII.

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Presentation on theme: "The Renaissance and the State Power of the Central Government By Mid 16C Charles V, Francis I and Henry VIII."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Renaissance and the State Power of the Central Government By Mid 16C Charles V, Francis I and Henry VIII


3 “New Monarchies” Western Europe – Spain, France, and England – but not in Eastern or Central Europe Developed out of the 14th century and the end of the Middle Ages – Factors –the Black Plague, –the 100 Years’ War and its’ concommitant expense, –the dissolution of the feudal system, –the rise of towns and cities, the rise of the middle class Definition: sovereign states with centralized authority – decisions made by King and exercised through his agents apply to whole state

4 Characteristics of the New Monarchies Standing armies (instead of feudal system)- need for Professional Armies Centralized authority in the hands of the King – took power away from representative bodies (Parliament in England, Cortes in Spain, Estates General in France) Taxes on the peasantry and borrowed money, but few taxes on the nobility->Costs of War –Standing Armies, often relied upon mercenaries. Charles V had a standing army of more than 100k soldiers –More expensive weapons->technology->cannon, aquebus –Bankers, Fueggers, Medici’s lent money to Kings->debt of Francis I after Italian Wars was over 7 Million Ducats->more than his revenue in a year –Professional bureaucracy made up of the middle class instead of the nobility->zero sum game->Nobles often given other rights/priviliges Created royal courts, made rule hereditary (Valois, Tudors) Diplomacy between states->often through marriage


6 France Problems of 100 Years’ War still plagued country – depopulation, devastated farms Charles VII (1422 – 1461) (Capetian) –Used a royal council made up of middle class men –Permanent professional army –Removed the English from France Effective taxes –Gabelle - tax on salt instituted to raise money –Taille – a tax on the peasant’s land –King did not use the Estates General to tax people from (1484 to 1560) – these two taxes gave him enough money Why didn’t the King want the Estates General to meet?

7 The Gabelle

8 Louis XI (1461-1483) (Capetian) –Ruthless ruler –Created postal service->new bureaucracy –Defeated Charles the Bold and overtook the duchy of Burgundy in 1482 (Burgundy no longer a threat by the mid 16C) Wars in Italy at the end of the 15th century and with the Habsburgs in the 16th century were expensive and divided the country

9 Francis I- 1515-1547 (Valois) –Humanist Da Vinci and Bude –Louevre becomes site of masterpiece artwork –Centralization of Government French becomes official language Church to register births etc…

10 England 100 Years’ War followed by another war War of the Roses (1455-1485) –House of York (white rose) versus House of Lancaster (red rose) –House of Lancaster ruled until 1461 when Edward IV of York took over and increased the power and finances of the monarchy –Henry VI-> Edward IV (York)->Henry VI –Richard III usurped power from Edward’s sons in 1484 –Henry Tudor (Lancastrian) defeated Richard III (York) on Bosworth Field in 1485 –Henry VII (Tudor marries a York)

11 Henry Tudor / Henry VII

12 Henry VII (1486-1509) of England Married a York to solidify throne Improved the court system – Court of Star Chamber that limited the power of the aristocracy Used justices of the peace, unpaid local officials, to handle justice on the local level Did not use Parliament to collect funds (note similarity w/Louis XI) Generated loyalty among the middle class because he did not tax them Used middle class people as his chief ministers->zero sum game Collected money from feudal dues and taxes on imports No Standing Army!!! Led England to prosperity and peace

13 Henry VIII (1509-1547) *Brother Arthur was to become King->married Catherine of Aragon (Ferdinand and Isabella’s child)->Arthur dies Henry marries his dead brother’s wife Renaissance King Humanist Corresponded w/Erasmus and More (who was later in his court)

14 Spain Iberian Peninsula controlled by Kingdoms of Castile, Aragon, Portugal, Navarre, and Granada in mid 15th century Castile and Aragon were united when Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469

15 Ferdinand and Isabella

16 Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain Accomplishments – Christianized all of Spain by expelling Muslims from Granada in 1492, –forcing Jews and Muslims to convert to Christianity –Inquisition- Torquemada persecuting ones who were not sincere under the Inquisition, forced unconverted Jews and Muslims to leave Spain Controlled the church by appointing important officers of the Church Replaced nobles with middle class in government positions Promoted overseas exploration Grandchild Charles I (also known as Charles V) was first ruler of all of Spain

17 Overseas exploration

18 Holy Roman Empire Created a system of electing the Emperor with the Golden Bull in 1356 Maximillian created a Reichstag to balance the rights of the Emperor with the rights of the princes Habsburg dynasty controlled position of Holy Roman Emperor after 1438

19 Habsburgs 1200s- 1918- –Austrian estates- Danube River –Right of Elector- 1438- dominate HRE position –Will you Habsburg agree to take this land…- Marriage… Burgundy expanded into lowlands- While Louis XI (spider king)->defeated Charles the Bold gained much of Burgundy, Charles daughter married Max, then Max’s son married Joanna… Reign of Charles I (V)

20 Search billions of records on Map of the Habsburg Empire of Charles V Return to Map List



23 Why not Central and Eastern Europe? Hungary and Poland Nobility dominate Bohemia- Slavic v. German- Hussite Movement Ottoman conquests, 1526 Suleiman I moves as far west and north as Hungary (Battle of Mohacs) Russia still lingering from control of Mongols- starting to arise

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