Presentation on theme: "There are around 70 million people living in 1 million square miles of Europe. Transportation was slow, hazardous, communications sporadic and uncertain."— Presentation transcript:
There are around 70 million people living in 1 million square miles of Europe. Transportation was slow, hazardous, communications sporadic and uncertain. The urban life you see in Renaissance Italy did not exist in any other part of Europe yet, although town and city growth is occurring. The most important development of the 13 th and 16 th centuries was the gradual rise of national states. By the end of the 15 th century, national monarchies prevailed everywhere in the West except Germany and Italy.
Rise of the National State The establishment of royal authority depended on many factors – The ruler himself – Rulers less dependent on nobles and were able to maintain standing armies of their own. – Diplomacy and well planned marriages – Territories could be purchases. – Representative institutions began to arise although the monarchs still held the majority of the power.
Muscovy At the beginning of the 16 th century, the principality of Muscovy was the largest in Europe. Under Ivan III “the Great” and Ivan IV “the terrible” Muscovy expanded by 1.5 million sq. miles. This land was never lost. Several factors allowed for this expansion – Mongol Empire deteriorating, allowing Ivan to escape the yoke of their rule. – The fall of Constantinople made Muscovy the Heir to eastern Christendom. – Ivan III had no rivals for his throne. Ivan III “the Great” extended the privileges of his nobility and organized a military class who received land for their service. He also developed a theory on ruling that rested on the divine vs. temporal power, combining the religious authority of the Orthodox Church with his power.
Ivan IV “the terrible” did not trust the boyars (nobility) like his grandfather. During his brutal suppression of supposed conspiracies several thousand families were murdered by Ivan IV- earning his nickname “the terrible” He also made the Boyars situation similar to that of the military class, whose members owned their fortunes to the Tsar.
England The only state to suffer no fear of foreign invasion in the 15 th century. However, three decades of warfare between English nobles created a monarchy that had lost both prestige and power. Henry Tudor, Henry VII, put an end to dynastic stability at one by marrying Elizabeth of York in whose heirs would have a legitimate claim to the throne. Henry VII and his son Henry VIII both began taming the subjects of England and creating a new batch of nobles that owed their loyalty and titles to the Tudors.
The financial problems of the monarchy were not as easy to tame. English kings had to gain the assent of Parliament in order to tax the English people. It wasn’t until Henry VIII’s reign that the crown was wealthy again. Henry VIII confiscated the wealth of the Catholic Church and instantly solved all the wealth problems of the crown. Thomas Cromwell, Henry’s chief minister, accelerated the process of centralizing the government under the king with his diplomacy and negotiations.
France France was frequently at war with its neighbors – This ended with the 100 years war in the mid 15 th century. – The Swiss took care of the Burgundy problem for France and themselves as well. France’s nobles were in constant rivalry for the throne. – Louis XI ended this by marrying his daughters off to Prince’s of provinces, and all estates without male heirs were inherited by the King. French people were loyal to their province vs. an overall king. – Louis XI’s daughters marriage and his consolidation of French provinces created a unified state. The North and South were divided by culture and language. – The French monarchy is the first to develop a national army raised and directed by the King but supplied and equipped regionally. – By the beginning of the 16 th century, the French King could raise and an equip an army of his own.
Spain Prior to the 16 th century, Moors/Muslims, occupied the province of Granada in the South and Portugal dominated the Western Coast. The Spanish people were also divided into a number of separate states.
Spain The 2 most important were Castile and Aragon. Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile exchanged wedding vows secretly in 1469 while their kingdoms fought civil wars. Their combined resources were enough to complete the Reconquista, or reconquering the kingdom of Grenada from the Moors in 1492 uniting Spain. However, the idea of a Holy War had a darker side with unexpected consequences.
The Inquisition and the Jews Converted Jews called conversos fell under attack by the Spanish Inquisition, a church tribunal that tested their new faith and loyalty. – Thousands of Conversos were killed and thousands more had their wealth taken for the Reconquista. – In 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella expelled all Jews from Spain. – Charles V was a central figuring in unifying Spain.