Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: Infancy: Socioemotional Development. Attachment: The Basic Life Bond History Behaviorists (Watson, Skinner) minimized human attachment."— Presentation transcript:
Attachment: The Basic Life Bond History Behaviorists (Watson, Skinner) minimized human attachment need Believed “maternal reinforcing stimulus” created infant’s need to be close to caregiver John Watson, strict behaviorist Appeared hostile to the idea of attachment Crusaded against the dangers of “too much” mother love
Attachment: History Harry Harlow (1958) ▫ Experiment with monkeys Separated babies from mothers at birth Found that contact comfort was important to bonding John Bowlby (late 1960’s)) ▫ Conducted clinical work with children who were hospitalized and separated from their mothers ▫ Promoted idea that a primary attachment figure is crucial to healthy development Harlow: Baby monkeys clung to the cloth-covered mother
Exploring the Attachment Response Bowlby’s evolutionary-based theory Human beings have a critical period during the first year when the attachment response is programmed to emerge. Proximity-seeking behavior—a survival response activated by threats occurring at any age Two categories for threats to survival May be activated by our internal state May be evoked by dangers in the external world
Attachment Phases Pre-attachment Phase—birth to 3 months Reflex dominated time 2 months, social smile (example of automatic reflex, not in response to attachment figure) Social smile evokes care and love
Attachment Phases, continued Attachment in the making—4 to 7 months Slight preference for caregivers, but still responds to everyone Clear-cut (focused) attachment—7 to 8 months Stranger-anxiety and separation anxiety appear Social referencing
Attachment Phases Working Model phase— ▫ About age 3, child develops cognitive inner representation of attachment figure. ▫ When child is under stress, the need to make contact is very important. ▫ Responsive caregiver will fortify attachment bond.
The Strange Situation: Mary Ainsworth Measures individual variations in attachment response during “clear-cut” stage Planned separations and reunions of child and primary caregiver
Ainsworth’s Attachment Styles Securely Attached Child uses primary caregiver as a secure base from which to explore Child reacts with joy upon caregiver’s return
Ainsworth’s Attachment Styles Insecurely Attached Avoidant Appears detached; indifferent upon mother’s return Anxious-Ambivalent Clingy, fearful, fear of exploration Severe distress when mother leaves; contradictory emotions upon return; often inconsolable Disorganized Bizarre behaviors; may freeze, look frightened, may flee Often result of abuse
The Attachment Dance Synchrony Caregiver and infant respond emotionally to each other in a sensitive, attuned way Ainsworth & Bowlby—parent’s sensitivity to baby’s signals are foundation for secure attachment
Attachment and Child’s Temperament Temperament— characteristic behavioral style of approaching the world Easy Slow to Warm-up Difficult Baby’s temperament and quality of caregiving will influence attachment style.
Infant Attachment—Does It Predict Later Development? Bowlby ▫ Inner working model of attachment determines how we relate to others and feel about ourselves. ▫ Research supports this model. Caution! ▫ Attachment styles can change over time! Life stress may change attachment from secure to insecure. Responsive caregiving can change attachment from insecure to secure!
Settings for Development Poverty in the United States Poverty (Federal government definition) An income level that allows a household to pay for shelter, food, and clothing, with a small amount left over. In 2009, more than 1 in 4 children under age 6 was living under the poverty line (see chart). Low Income Those earning within 200% of the poverty line. In 2009, 1 in 2 (44%) children
Poverty and Development: Research Findings During childhood, poverty may compromise health (e.g., low birth weight, stressed mother). Poverty may have long-term educational impact. Poverty during first 4 years of life makes it statistically less likely for a child to graduate from high school. May enter school “left behind” Less access to quality preschools, enriching toys, trips to museums Less concrete breathing space to learn (e.g., substandard housing; dangerous neighborhood)
Erik Erikson’s Age of Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
Psychosocial Development 1-2 years to be autonomous selves Understanding of “self” and self-conscious emotions appear May feel proud or ashamed Need to explore negative outcome: Shame and Doubt
Socialization The process by which children are taught to obey the norms of society and to behave in socially appropriate ways Self-regulation is difficult at age 2. Improves dramatically from age 2 to 4