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Short Stories Almost everything you need to know!.

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1 Short Stories Almost everything you need to know!

2 What is a short story? A short story is a piece of fiction which can be read at one sitting. Like a novel it uses character, conflict, theme, setting, and point of view/ narration to create an impression on the reader. In a short story every word counts, so it creates restrictions for the author.

3 Short Stories The plot of the story might be streamlined – only one major event may be explored. The rising action of the plot and climax might become to a head quite quickly; it may even occur in the last few paragraphs or the last few lines. Plot: what is happening in the story Climax: moment right before the main conflict is solved

4 Short Stories Characters might not be as well developed and/or the number of characters is usually limited. There may be one or two central themes that are developed. The setting and atmosphere may be established very quickly at the beginning. There is usually one major point-of-view/ type of narration.

5 Introduces the character and setting In a short story, the plot moves quickly towards the denouement (conclusion). The complicating incidents or obstacles to resolve conflict. Point of highest tension. The End! All the loose ends are tied up (or not).

6 Character With direct characterization the author describes what a character is like. Indirect characterization allows the reader to come to his own conclusions about a character based on information the author gives such as the character’s name, appearance, dialogue, thoughts and actions. It can include how people react to the character and what other people think of the character.

7 Character A static character does not change over the course of the story. Their character traits remain the same. A dynamic character changes by the end of the story. They become a different person. Flat: don’t know much about the character Round: know a lot about the character.

8 Theme The theme is the meaning or the purpose of the story. It should ALWAYS be expressed in a complete thought. Always use third person narration Do not start with negatives Avoid using cliché

9 Narration The angle from which the story is told. There are many different points of view. First Person - The Unreliable Narrator and the Innocent Narrator Third Person - Omniscient, Limited and Objective

10 Narration The omniscient narrator knows everything, may reveal the motivations, thoughts and feelings of the characters, and gives the reader information. With a limited narrator, the material is presented from the point of view of a character, in third person. The objective point of view presents the action and the characters' speech, without comment or emotion. The reader has to interpret them and uncover their meaning.

11 Conflict Person vs person Person vs self Person vs society Person vs nature Person vs supernatural

12 Confusing Terms! Tone – the attitude of the writer towards his/her subject. The tone may be a comic tone, serious, critical, angry, sympathetic…. Mood – the feeling the reader gets from the story. It is created through images, rhyme, rhythm, and other devices. Ex. The mood of “The Simpsons” is humorous but the tone is critical.

13 Irony Verbal Irony – Saying the opposite of what is meant. This often reveals something about the character who makes the comments. Dramatic Irony - The reader knows more about the situation than the character. Daytime soaps use this device a great deal. A character is talking about her loving boyfriend who is cheating on her with her best friend! She doesn't know about it, but you do! Situational Irony – Events turn out differently than what was expected. You don’t expect an Olympic swimmer to drown in his bathtub.

14 Literary terms Metaphor: a comparison between two unlike things. Her voice was music to his ears. Simile: a comparison between two unlike things using like, as, or than. He ran as fast as a cheetah. Personification: giving non-human entities human like characteristics. The flower danced in the wind.

15 Literary terms Oxymoron: the use of contradictory terms used side by side for effect. That girl is pretty ugly. Alliteration: the repetition of the initial sound. Daisy Duke dances to disco in December. Onomatopoeia: word that looks like the word it is describing. All I could hear was the door bang shut.

16 Literary terms Allusion: making reference to something well known to a particular audience. Often from mythology, history, or art. That couple has been struck with Cupid’s arrow. Diction: word choice. That girl is slim vs. That girl is skeletal.

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