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Chapter 13 Understanding Infants

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1 Chapter 13 Understanding Infants
Growth – the increase in the baby’s size and weight. Development – increase in physical, intellectual, emotional, and social skills. Growth and Proportion Baby will loose a few pounds in the first few days. Gains 1-2 lbs each month for the first 6 months. In proportion a newborns head is large and arms and legs are small compared to body. Our head reaches ½ its size the first year. Fontanels – soft spots on top, toward the back of head.

2 Failure to Thrive The infants rate of growth is significantly below average. Growth and skill development if delayed Causes – medical problems, poor nutrition, unmet emotional and social needs such as not being held, talked to or provided stimulation. Reflexes – automatic responses to stimulation. Ex – sucking, rooting, sneezing, grasping, startle,

3 Senses Vision At birth can only focus about 8-10 “
A baby's senses are fully or partially developed before birth. Vision At birth can only focus about 8-10 “ Can detect light or dark but not colors By 3 months babies have a wider field of vision Depth perception – the ability to see 3 dimensional is developed by 7months By 1 year most babies have very good vision.

4 Senses Hearing – babies can hear before they are born. They startle easily, but can sleep through loud noises. Touch – Touch is fully developed at birth. When they cry, cuddling them will calm them. Taste – well-developed at birth. Research shows that within hours of birth, baby's can tell the difference in sweet, sour, and bitter. Smell – developed very soon after birth. Within days baby’s know there mother’s smell.

5 Motor Skills Large motor skills
involves muscles of the back, legs, arms, and shoulders. (Ex crawling) Develop in a sequence as the muscles strengthens Head and trunk strengthens first. lifts head, roll over, pull up, crawl, standing, climbing, and walking. PPt of 3mon, 6 mon 9 mon & 1 year developing large and small motor skills p. 268

6 Small Motor Skills Involves muscles of the fingers, wrists, or ankles
Develop in a sequence as the muscles strengthens Bat at an object, hold a rattle, drink from a cup, picking up fruit loops Tooth development Typically begin the break through around 6-10 mons. Usually come in pairs During teething they have pain, can run a fever.

7 Intellectual Development
Intellectual development is the ability to think, understand, learn, remember, develop language, and solve problems. Infancy is a critical time for this development. The high level thought process area is not developed yet. In order for this area to develop a baby must be stimulated so new connections form and old ones strengthen. Babies first learn through their senses. EX They look in the direction of a sound Infants learn by trial and error. Ex. Drop food on the floor game. We pick it up they drop it. They learn appearance, disappearance and reappearance of objects. Jean Piaget a theory of intellectual development. The first major period of intellectual development is called sensorimotor period. Last from birth to 2 years old.

8 Sensorimotor Stages Birth – 1 Month One to Four Months
Learn through their reflexes. One to Four Months Through their senses they begin to sort out their environment. Four to Eight Months Begin to manipulate objects. Use with senses. Ex If they push a button on a toy, it will make a noise. Eight to Twelve months

9 Object Permanence At about the age of 9 months infants are able to understand that things still exit even when they are out of sight. Ex. If their parents are not visible they can cry to get their needs met because their parents may be near by.

10 Language First 2 months babies cry, grunt, and sigh.
2-5 months they add coos and laughs 7-8 months they add babbling such as ba-ba-ba and dee-dee-dee. Babies copy what they hear You should talk and read to them to promote their language development. PPT show large and small motor skill development. p268

11 Emotional Development
Newborns basically have 2 emotions, contentment and distress. By 1 year they have developed delight, elation, affection, anger, disgust and fear. By 9 months most babies can recognize situations that they interpret as threatening. Between 6-9 months they development stranger anxiety – fearful of unfamiliar faces. Forming attachments is the key to emotional and social development. Parents that give their babies ample affection are educating their children about giving and receiving love. Parents can foster self esteem by hugging and cuddling their infants and meeting their needs. When their needs are met, it confirms that they are important.

12 Social Development Holding, bathing, cuddling, and playing helps with social development. Babies are sensitive to other people’s moods so maintain a pleasant environment at home.

13 Moral Development Infants do not know right from wrong, but it starts as an outgrowth of social development. They learn that social interaction includes rules that are reinforced by parents. The more interaction an infant has with parents, siblings and other people, the more all areas are development .

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