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Mr. Knowles Anatomy and Physiology Liberty Senior High School

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1 Mr. Knowles Anatomy and Physiology Liberty Senior High School
Body Cavities Chapter 1 Mr. Knowles Anatomy and Physiology Liberty Senior High School

2 Body Cavities

3 Body Cavities Internal chambers that suspend vital organs. Functions:
1. Protect delicate organs from shock and cushions them. 2. Allow internal organs to change size and shape without distorting other organs.

4 Body Cavities Dorsal Body Cavity Ventral Body Cavity

5 Two Major Divisions Dorsal Body Cavity- contain brain and spinal cord.
Ventral Body Cavity- much larger; contains all of the major organs.

6 I. Doral Body Cavity Subdivided into:
1. Cranial Cavity- contains the brain. 2. Spinal Cavity- contains the spinal cord.

7 A. Cranial Cavity Within the bony skull. Protects the brain.


9 B. Spinal Cavity extends from the cranial cavity to the end of the vertebral column protects the spinal cord.

10 II. Ventral Body Cavity The diaphragm divides this cavity into:
A. Thoracic Cavity- a superior cavity in the chest. B. Abdominopelvic Cavity- an inferior cavity containing the organs of the abdomen and the pelvis.

11 Body Cavities Provide moist, internal spaces that allow expansion and prevent friction. Viscera: organs that project into the cavities.

12 How do the body cavities protect organs?
Serous membranes line the walls of the cavities and cover the surface of the organs. Membranes secrete a fluid (serous fluid) that reduces friction within the cavity.

13 Naming the Two Layers Visceral- the layer of membrane that covers the organ. Parietal- the layer of membrane that lines the cavity. Both layers secrete a fluid that fills the space between.

14 Ventral Body Cavity Surrounds respiratory,
cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, reproductive


16 Abdominopelvic Cavity
II. Ventral Body Cavity The diaphragm separates the Ventral into 2 sub cavities Thoracic Cavity (superior) Abdominopelvic Cavity (inferior)

17 A. Thoracic Cavity Contains three internal chambers:
1. Pericardial Cavity- surrounds and protects the heart. 2. Two Pleural Cavities- surround the left and right lung.




21 1. Pericardium Made of two layers:
a. Visceral pericardium- membrane covering the heart. b. Parietal pericardium- membrane on the outside. c. Pericardial Cavity- is the fluid-filled space between.


23 Mediastinum The region within the thoracic cavity between the pleural cavities. Contains the pericardium + esophagus + trachea. It is only a region and not a cavity.



26 Mediastinum

27 2. Pleural Cavity Cavity around each lung.
Made by the a. visceral pleura and b. parietal pleura.


29 Abdominopelvic Cavity
Abdominal Cavity (Superior) Pelvic Cavity (Inferior)

30 B. Abdominopelvic Cavity
Divided into: 1. Abdominal Cavity- superior; from diaphragm to lowest vertebra. 2. Pelvic Cavity- inferior to the above; pelvic bones form wall and muscles form its floor.

31 Abdominal Cavity Lined by a serous membrane- peritoneum which protects the liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine and most of the large intestine. Kidneys are retroperitoneal- behind the peritoneum.

32 Peritoneum Two membranes: 1. Visceral Peritoneum- covers the organs.
2. Parietal Peritoneum- lines the abdominopelvic cavity. 3. Peritoneal Cavity- is the fluid-filled space between.

33 Pelvic Cavity Inferior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity.
Contains the last segments of large intestine, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs. Only the most superior organs in the pelvic cavity are covered in peritoneum (uterus, uterine tubes, ovaries, and bladder.


35 Inflammation of Peritoneum-Peritonitis

36 A Weakened Abdominal Wall-Hernia

37 Parasites of the Peritoneum


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