2 Outline Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology Human Body Orientation C. Body PositionsD. MovementE. Body Regions
3 A. IntroductionAnatomy (morphology): “cutting up”; the structural make-up of an organismPhysiology:The functions of an organism
4 Fine or Microscopic Anatomy: examines microscopic features of the body (cells / tissues)Gross Anatomy: examines features of the body visible to the naked eye (systems / organs)Pathology: study of human diseases
5 B. Human Body Orientation When the body is in Anatomical Position it is:1) in an erect posture,2) with arms at the sides,3) palms & feet facingforward.
6 Directional orientation refers to the view one has of a person Directional planes describe different ways a body can be viewed & dividedDirectional orientation explains a particular view of a person.Medial refers to the middle of the body.Lateral refers to the sides of the body.Superior, or cephalic, refers to a location near the head.Inferior, or caudal, refers to a location near the feet.Anterior, or ventral, refers to the front of the human body.Posterior, or dorsal, refers to the back of the human body.Directional planes are views of imaginary lines sliced through a person.A sagittal section slices the body vertically into left and right sections.A midsagittal section slices the body into equal left and right halves.A frontal, or coronal, section slices the body vertically into anterior and posterior sections.A transverse section slices the body horizontally into inferior and superior sections.
7 Superior: toward the head Inferior: toward the feet Directional OrientationSuperior:toward the headInferior:toward the feetEx. Lungs are superior to the diaphragm.
8 Medial: toward the midline Lateral: away from the midline Directional OrientationMedial:toward the midlineLateral:away from the midlineEx. Big toe is medial to the little toe.
9 close to an attachment point Directional OrientationProximal :close to an attachment pointDistal:far from an attachment pointEx. Elbow is proximal to the wrist.
10 Ex. Skin is superficial to muscles. Directional OrientationSuperficial:towards the surfaceDeepaway fromthe surfaceDeep:away fromthe surfaceEx. Skin is superficial to muscles.
11 Anterior: front view Posterior: back view (Ventral)front viewDirectional OrientationPosterior:(Dorsal)back viewEx. Chest is anterior to shoulder blades
12 Sagittal Plane: Midsagittal Plane: Directional PlanesSagittal Plane:lengthwise planes dividing the body into right & left sectionsMidsagittal Plane:divides the body into equal halves
13 Frontal Plane: Coronal Plane: Directional PlanesFrontal Plane:divides the body vertically into anterior & posterior sectionsCoronal Plane:anterior & posterior sections referring to head region
14 Directional PlanesTransverse Plane:divides the body horizontally into upper & lower sections
16 Concept Check 1 Define anatomy. 2. What is the difference between the study of fine anatomy and gross anatomy?3. Distinguish the difference between the terms physiology and pathology?
17 Concept Check 2 Distinguish between the terms lateral and medial. 2. What is the difference between the terms inferior and distal?3. What are alternate terms for anterior and posterior?
18 Concept Check 3What is the difference between a sagittal plane and midsagittal plane?2. Define the term frontal plane?3. What does transverse plane mean?
19 C. Body postions SUPINE: body is lying face up PRONE: downLithotomy:legs are placed on supportsthat hold the ankles and spread out the legs
20 D. Movement Antagonistic: opposing movements Flexion Extension Abduction AdductionInversion EversionFlexion: to bend a jointExtension: to straighten a jointAbduction: movement of the arm or leg away from the midline of the bodyAdduction: movement of the arm or leg toward the midline of the bodyEversion: movement of the hand or foot so that the thumb or great toe moves away from the midline of the bodyInversion: movement of the hand or foot so that the thumb or great toe moves toward the midline of the body
21 E. Body Regions and Cavities Body regions are divided into general locations, abdominopelvic regions, and quadrantsBody regions are divided into general locations, abdominopelvic regions, and quadrants.Abdominopelvic regions include nine sections that divide up the abdominal and pelvic portions of the body.Quadrants section the abdominal region into four portions.
24 Bilateral: – body parts located laterally on both sides of the body Unilateral: – single body part found in a lateral location
25 The human body is naturally divided into internal cavities DorsalcavityThe human body is naturally divided into internal cavities.The body cavities contain specific body structures.Ventralcavity
26 Ventral Body Cavity Thoracic cavity: – esophagus, heart, lungs, respiratory treePleural cavities:encase the lungsPericardial cavity:encases heart
27 Cutting Edge Research: Smoking and the Thoracic Cavity Pneumothorax – condition in which one or both lungs collapseSpontaneous pneumothorax – occurs in the absence of injury to the chest or lungs;7X more likely to occur in males than femalemale smokers are 20X more likely to develop SPthan male nonsmokersfemale smokers are 9X more likely to develop SPthan female nonsmokers
28 Abdominopelvic cavity: abdominal and pelvic regions Abdominal : liver, gallbladder, intestines, kidneys, spleen, stomachPelvic: rectum, reproductve system, urinary bladder
32 Concept Check 4Define the term antagonistic in relation to body movement.Distinguish between the terms flexion and extension.Name and describe the antagonistic movements for flexion, abduction, and eversion.
33 Concept Check 5 Define the abdominopelvic region. What is the name of the center-most section of the abdominopelvic region?How does the quadrant system differ from the abdominopelvic sections.
34 Concept Check 6What structures are found in the abdominopelvic cavity?Distinguish between the thoracic cavity and the spinal cavity.3. What are the sections of the spinal cavity?
35 Case Study Investigation #1: Conclusion What region did the knife enter? How do you know?What organs can be found in this region? Why might it be dangerous if these organs are punctured?Why do you think the patient is having trouble breathing? Is there a name for this condition?