2 Anatomy Unit Objectives Verbally describe or demonstrate the anatomical position.Use proper anatomical terminology to describe body directions, surfaces and body planesLocate the major body cavities, and list the chief organs in each cavity.
3 Superficial AnatomyInvolves locating structures on or near the body surfaceUnderstanding anatomical landmarks, anatomical regions, and terms for anatomical directions will help you remember both the location of a structure and its name.For example; the brachium refers to the the arm and the brachialis muscle and the brachial artery are located in the arm.
4 Why have an anatomical position? To prevent misunderstandings, anatomists use universally accepted terms to identify body structures precisely and with a minimum of words* It is important to remember that the terms “left” and “right” refer to those sides of the person being viewed – not those of the observer.
5 Anatomical Position1. Body erect 2. Feet slightly apart 3. Palms facing forward 4. Thumbs point away from body 5. Similar to “standing at attention” Supine – person laying down in anatomical position face up Prone – face downFigure 1.7a
15 Anatomical Variability Humans vary slightly in both external & internal anatomy.Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but:- Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of place- Small muscles may be missingExtreme anatomical variations are seldom seen . . .
19 Body CavitiesThe Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions:Cranial cavity is within the skull and encases the brainVertebral cavity runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord
20 Body CavitiesVentral cavity houses the internal organs and is divided into two subdivisions:ThoracicAbdominopelvic
21 The Thoracic cavity is subdivided into : Body CavitiesThe Thoracic cavity is subdivided into :Pleural cavities – each houses a lungMediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity, and surrounds the remaining thoracic organsPericardial cavity – encloses the heart
22 Body CavitiesThe abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragmTwo subdivisions:Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organsPelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
23 Ventral Body Cavity Membranes Parietal serosa lines internal body wallsVisceral serosa covers the internal organsSerous fluid separates the serosae
25 Other Body Cavities1. Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs 2. Nasal - located within and posterior to the nose 3. Orbital – house the eyes 4. Middle ear – contain bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations 5. Synovial – joint cavities
27 Abdominopelvic Regions UmbilicalEpigastricHypogastricRight and left iliac or inguinalRight and left lumbarRight and left hypochondriacFigure 1.11a
28 Abdominopelvic Regions Umbilical – Centermost region deep to and surrounding the umbilicus.Epigastric- located superior to the umbilical regionHypogastric- located inferior to the umbilical region
29 Abdominopelvic Regions Right and left iliac (inguinal)- located lateral to the hypogastric region.Right and left lumbar-lie lateral to the umbilical region.Right and left hypochondriac- lie lateral to the epigastric region.
30 Organs of the Abdominopelvic Regions Figure 1.11b
31 Abdominopelvic Quadrants Right upperLeft upperRight lowerLeft lowerFigure 1.12
32 At the clinic This cavity contains the bladder and the rectum. Which body cavity protects the nervous system?The frontal section is also called what?This region is inferior to the lumbar region.This region is superior to the hypogastric region.