2 Pop Quiz 20Name 2 members of the National Security Council besides the President and vice President.Name one of the worldviews described in the text.What percent of our military today is volunteer?What term describes the practice of asking for every possible bell and whistle in new equipment?What is the job of the BRAC Commission?In what building complex is DOD headquartered?
3 Types of Foreign & Defense Policy Majoritarian politics: Widely distributed benefits and widely distributed costs “We’re all in this together” (ex: declaring war and military alliances)-President controlsInterest Group politics: Groups compete with each other for costs and benefits (ex: who gets contract)-Congress mainly has controlClient politics: Washington gives aid to groups that that do business abroad (ex: policy toward Israel)-Congress mainly has controlEntrepreneurial politics: Congress carries out investigations when scandals hit (SS prostitute scandal)
4 Constitutional & Legal Context Power over foreign affairs shared by president and Congress; creates strugglePresident Commander in Chief, Negotiates treatiesCongress declares war, controls purse strings & Senate by 2/3 approves treatiesAmericans consider president in charge of foreign affairsHave sent out troops over 125 timesHave formally declared war 6 times
5 Chain of Command Important agencies/departments: State Dept., Defense Dept., NSC, & CIAPresidents today rely on both Secs. also on NSAPresident receives more approval from Congress on foreign matters than domesticPresident is much stronger than Founders imagined (ex.: T.J. and the pirates; Abe blockades Southern ports; Reagan in Grenada)President has much less power over troops and foreign affairs than leaders in other countries, though.
6 Foreign Policy: The Machine Coordination of foreign & defense policy managed by NSC – Chaired by the Pres. With the VP, Sec. of State & Defense, CIA Director, Chairman of JCS, and Attorney General; headed by the NS AdvisorNSC brings options before president and implements his decisionsPres.’s decisions are issued through a National Security Decision Directive (NSDD)Consequences of NSC foreign policy :Rivalries of agencies worsen rivalry with leg. branchOrganizations’ interests affect the positions they take
7 Interpreting Power of Presidents SCOTUS rarely gets involved in disputes over foreign policyBiggest check on Pres. is Congressional Powers of Purse but these have never really been used-only threatenedImportant restrictions on Presidents since Vietnam:Limits on aid to other countriesBoland Amendment- Prevented aid to Nicaraguan ContrasWar Powers Act 1973Notify Cong. within 48 hoursBring troops home in 60 days if no cooperation from CongressMust bring troops home if Congress passes a concurrent resolution cutting off fundingOversight by House/Senate Intelligence CommitteesGet reports from CIA on covert and other missions
8 Public OpinionWWII led to internationalism-U.S. became dominant world powerPublic often changes their minds out of deference to Pres.’s authority and desire to support country in foreign conflict AKA “rallying around the flag”President must have public trustElite opinion usually differs from public opinionChanges more rapidlyLeaders usually more liberalSupport economic aid, reducing tariffs, defending alliesPublic usually worried more about protecting jobs at home than overseas matters
9 Worldviews (Paradigms) Perception of problems facing US in the world & how to respondIsolationism: Opposed to getting involved in others’ wars; stemmed from bitterness about WWIContainment (anti-appeasement): Push back any nation it sees as threat to our/allies power & safetyDisengagement: Don’t get involved in a conflict without exit strategy; Conflicts must be winnableHuman rights: We’re obligated to help others who have been wronged or harmed (often occurs during genocide or oppression)Pre-emption: Take the threat out before they can strike US
10 What factors Influence the growth or decline of the defense budget? Crisis in war can influence the budgetPolitical Party matters in voting for conflict approval.War disapproval by public (such as the second term of George W. Bush) matters as to how elections are decided.
11 The Military Budget Has remained constant as part of GDP Many demand that “peace dividend” be shifted to domestic programsOthers argue defenses must stay strong to prevent nuclear proliferation & terrorismOur military is an all-volunteer force! No draft since 1975! Young men still must register with Selective ServiceDebates have arisen over women & gays in military-Obama’s policy’s have expanded both roles.
12 The Military Budget What else do we get for our money? Big ticket itemsLead to cost overruns, underestimation to gain bid, gold plating, sole-sourcing, & delaysSmall ticket itemsOverruns caused by special needs of common items like the coffee makerReadinessEasy to cut, but often dangerousBasesWhich bases should be closed? BRAC decides
13 Military-industrial complex The Military-Industrial complex is a concept used to refer to the relationship between legislators, the armed forces, and the industrial sectors that support them.These relationships include political contributions, political approval for defense spending, lobbying to support bureaucracies, and legislation and oversight of the industry.It is a type of iron triangle.This includes corporations and contracted manufacturers like Northrop Grumman, Academi and Lockheed Martin
14 Chain of Command in DODCommand structure of Dept. of Defense redefined by the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986Chain of commandPresidentSecretary of Defense (Chuck Hagel)Sec. commanders of Army, Navy & Air ForceChairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff & Service Chiefs of Staff are responsible for readiness of U.S. military. They serve as President's military advisers, but are not in the chain of command.The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is by law the highest ranking military officer in US. (Gen. Martin Dempsey)
16 Terrorism as a reality Discuss Boston Marathon attack. What policies can we pursue to prevent future attacks?Which is a bigger threat: Domestic or foreign terrorism?Which is harder to prevent?What do we do to feel safer?