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The Role of the President and the Executive Branch.

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Presentation on theme: "The Role of the President and the Executive Branch."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Role of the President and the Executive Branch

2 2 Overview  Constitutional Powers in Foreign Policy  Growth of Executive Dominance  Influence of the President on Defense policy

3 3 Samples of Behavior  Explain how the President’s constitutional and political powers influence the foreign policy process  Summarize the growth of executive dominance in foreign affairs  Describe the extent of influence the President exerts on defense policy and spending  ID selected Presidential administration’s defense policies

4 4  Foreign Policy Powers Chief Executive Chief Negotiator and Diplomat Authority to Appoint & Remove Officials Constitutional Powers (President)

5 5 Foreign Policy Powers  Chief Executive First sentence in Article II: “The Executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States” “He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed”  Commander-In-Chief  Does the President have final authority to commit troops abroad?

6 6 Presidential Constitutional Powers  Chief Negotiator and Diplomat Executive Agreements Formal Obligations between US and foreign governments Do Not require Senate approval Example: Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA)  Authority to appoint and remove officials

7 7 (Not subject to Congressional checks & balances)  Only “nationally” elected official  Entire federal bureaucracy works for President  Mantle of office  Unparalleled access to media  Presidential power in national security arena Presidential Political Powers

8 8  Power to make and modify any laws  Appropriate funds for implementing laws  Authorized to provide for the nat’l defense  Declare war  To raise and support armies  Regulate international commerce  Make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying out its other responsibilities “Elastic Clause” Congress’ “Foreign Policy” Constitutional Powers

9 9  Historical Precedents Represent US abroad Negotiate international agreements Recognize other states Initiate conduct of foreign policy Growth of Executive Dominance

10 10 Growth of Executive Dominance  Supreme Court Decisions Generally supported Presidents in foreign policy Curtiss-Wright case (1936)  Congressional Deference & Delegation Delegates foreign policy prerogatives to President

11 Public Press Radio/ Television Interest Group Interested Individuals Congress Government Account Office Congressional Budget Office Senate Committees Armed Services House Committees Armed Services Foreign Relations International Relations Budget Rules Energy and National Resources Science and Technology Appropriations Governmental Affairs Governmental Operations Defense OSD, JCS, Army Navy, Air Force, DIA National Security Agency Commerce Justice FBI State CIA Treasury Interior Executive Departments and Agencies Arms Control Agency DOE Advisors President Close Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Departments White House Office Domestic Council NSC OMB Council of Econ Advisors Executive Institutions and Policy Influences

12 12 Growth of Executive Dominance  Growth of Executive Institutions Foreign policy machinery of President grew considerably since WWII National Security Act of 1947 Created NSC, CIA, and DoD Gave President an intelligence advisor (CIA) and military advisor (JCS), and national security advisor (Sec of Def)

13 13 Defense Policy  TRUMAN (Containment)  EISENHOWER (Massive Retaliation)  KENNEDY (Flexible Response)  JOHNSON (Mutual Assured Destruction)  NIXON (Sufficient Deterrence)  FORD  CARTER (Minimum Deterrence)  REAGAN (Peace Through Strength)  BUSH (Peace Through Disarmament)  CLINTON (Engagement)  BUSH, G.W. (Pre-emptive Strike)

14 14 Summary  Constitutional Powers in Foreign Policy  Growth of Executive Dominance  Influence of the President on Defense policy

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