White House Office President’s closest assistants Includes- CHIEF OF STAFF, COUNSEL TO THE PRESIDENT, PRESS SECRETARY, EXPERT ADVISORS Do not need Senate confirmations Oversee political & policy issues
WHITE HOUSE OFFICE –Staffs organized in 3 ways: –Pyramid structure- Eisenhower, Nixon, & Reagan –Circular structure- Carter –Ad hoc structure-Clinton
The National Security Council Advises the president on domestic, foreign, and military matters that relate to the nation’s security Members – VP, Sec. Of Defense & State, director of CIA, & Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff
Presidential Power Persuasion Power Three audiences 1. Politicians 2. party activists 3. general public
Presidential Popularity* Reasons for increase: –most popular immediately after he is elected – “honeymoon period,” –good economic conditions, – foreign policy success –reelection campaign
Reasons for decrease: –Decline in popularity over term –Sluggish economy –Scandal –Unpopular war
Figure 12.2: Presidential Popularity Source: Thomas E. Cronin, The State of the Presidency (Boston: Little, Brown, 1975), 110-111. Copyright 1975 by Little, Brown and Co., Inc. Reprinted by permission. Updated with Gallup poll data, 1976-1993. Reprinted by permission of the Gallup Poll News Service.
Figure 12.2: Presidential Popularity (cont’d) Source: Thomas E. Cronin, The State of the Presidency (Boston: Little, Brown, 1975), 110-111. Copyright 1975 by Little, Brown and Co., Inc. Reprinted by permission. Updated with Gallup poll data, 1976-1993. Reprinted by permission of the Gallup Poll News Service.
What ways can the President say no? The budget Veto Executive privilege Impoundment of funds
President Program Constraints –Public Reaction –Congressional Reaction –Limited time –budget
Chief Legislator 1. Veto 2. Outlines legislative proposals 3. Calls special sessions of Congress A. 2/3 both houses of Congress can override a veto B. Congress is not obligated to pass the president’s proposals
Chief Jurist 1. Pardon power 2. Appoints federal judges A. Senate approval needed for judges
Chief Economist 1. Develops the national budget – OMB A. Congress must allocate money
Leader of the Free World 1. Persuasion powers over allies A. Allies are under no obligation to follow
PRESIDENTIAL CHARACTER EISENHOWER-orderly, delegation of authority KENNEDY- improviser JOHNSON- master legislative strategist, who tended to micromanage NIXON- expertise in foreign policy FORD- many decisions were made in disorganized manner
CARTER- micromanage REAGAN-set policy priorities and then gave staff wide latitude BUSH-hands-on manager CLINTON-good communicator BUSH – tightly run White House Obama- ?