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The Presidency in Action

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1 The Presidency in Action
Magruder Chapter 14

2 The Changing View of Presidential Power

3 Why Power Has Grown The Presidency is in the hands of one person, rather than many, and many Presidents have worked to expand the powers of the office As the country grew and industrialized, especially in times of emergency, people demanded that the Federal Government play a larger role and looked to the President for leadership

4 Why Power Has Grown Congress has delegated much authority to the President Presidents have the attention and respect of the press, the public, and their own party Huge staff of the President Attract and hold the public’s attention Use of the media

5 How Presidents Have Viewed Their Power
Stronger and more effective Presidents have taken a broad view of the powers of the office Teddy Roosevelt (page 355) Other Presidents have viewed a strong executive as a threat to liberty, and have interpreted the powers of the office narrowly William Howard Taft (page 355)

6 The President’s Executive Powers

7 Executing the Law The President is responsible for carrying out the nation’s laws Oath of office of the President Article II Section 3

8 Executing the Law The President must carry out laws with which he or she disagrees, but he or she has some discretion in interpreting the laws and deciding how vigorously they will be enforced Laws are broadly written Specific details left to Executive Branch

9 The Ordinance Power The bureaucracy of the executive branch is under the authority of the President The President has the authority to issue executive orders, which have the force of law Executive orders are necessary to the functioning of the executive branch

10 The Appointing Power The President may appoint a handful of officials on his or her own authority Most of the important officers appointed by the President, including ambassadors, judges, and cabinet members, must be approved by the Senate

11 The Appointing Power Well over half of the officials in the federal work force are selected through civil service examinations, and thus are not under the control of the President

12 The Removal Power Historically, there has been disagreement over whether the President has the power to remove at will persons whom he or she has appointed with the consent of the Senate The President’s power to remove people from office has generally been upheld by Congress

13 The Removal Power Exceptions are federal judges and members of independent regulatory agencies

14 The Diplomatic and Military Powers

15 Power To Make Treaties Usually acting through the Secretary of State, the President may negotiate treaties, or international agreements The Senate must approve treaties by a two-thirds vote before they become law A small minority in the Senate has sometimes been sufficient to block approval of a treaty

16 Executive Agreements Today, most routine international agreements are made by executive agreement – pacts between the President and the leaders of foreign countries Executive agreements do not require Senate approval

17 Power of Recognition Presidents have the power to recognize, or acknowledge the legal existence of a country Diplomatic recognition is a powerful weapon because recognition – or the lack of it – often determines a new government’s future

18 The President’s Dominant Role in Military Affairs
The President shares the war powers with Congress but has almost no limits on his or her role as commander-in-chief Presidents usually delegate much of their command authority to military subordinates while retaining final authority in military matters

19 The President’s Dominant Role in Military Affairs
Only Congress can declare war, but Presidents have often used the military without a formal declaration of war There have been numerous undeclared wars in the country’s history, including the Korean and Viet Nam wars

20 The President’s Dominant Role in Military Affairs
In wartime, the President’s powers as commander-in-chief have often been expanded to include non-military matters The President may use the armed forces, including State militias, to keep the peace in times of domestic turmoil

21 The President’s Dominant Role in Military Affairs
In response to the Viet Nam War, Congress passed the war Powers Resolution of 1973 The Resolution requires the President to inform Congress of any commitment of American troops abroad within 48 hours. It also requires the President to gain congressional approval if the commitment lasts longer than 60 days

22 The President’s Dominant Role in Military Affairs
The constitutionality of the War Powers Resolution has been and remains in dispute

23 The Legislative and Judicial Powers

24 Legislative Field The President gives the State of the Union address and suggests annual budgets The President also recommends specific legislation to Congress The President has the power to veto legislation The President may veto a bill outright

25 Legislative Field The President may use the pocket veto
The President used to have the power to use the line-item veto The President may call special sessions of Congress The President may also adjourn Congress if the two houses cannot agree on a date for adjournment

26 Judicial Powers The President may grant reprieves and pardons in cases involving federal law Except in cases of impeachment The President may commute, or reduce, sentences or fines imposed by a court The President may grant amnesty, or general pardon, to persons who have violated the law

27 The Executive Office of the President and the Cabinet

28 The Executive Office The Executive Office of the President is an umbrella agency made up of several separate offices and staffed by the President’s closest advisors and assistants It includes the chief of staff, the counsel to the President, the press secretary, and expert advisors in many areas

29 The National Security Council
The NSC advises the President on all matters of national security, foreign and domestic Its members include the Vice President, the Secretaries of State and Defense, the director of the CIA, and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

30 The Office of Management and Budget
The OMB is a powerful agency whose major task is to prepare the annual federal budget It also monitors the spending of funds appropriated by Congress and oversees the management of the executive branch

31 The Office of National Drug Control Policy
The Office of National Drug Control Policy prepares an annual drug control policy It coordinates the efforts of more than 50 federal agencies involved in the war on drugs

32 The Council of Economic Advisors
The Council of Economic Advisors consists of three top economists, appointed by the President and approved by the Senate It is the President’s chief source of information and advice on the economy

33 Other Units in the Executive Office
The Office of Policy Development advises the President on domestic matters The National Space Council advises on the nation’s civil and military efforts in space and is chaired by the Vice President The Council on Environmental Quality is concerned with all environmental matters

34 Other Units in the Executive Office
The Office of United States trade Representative advises on foreign trade The National Critical Materials Council advises on critical natural resources related to national security

35 Other Units in the Executive Office
The Office of Science and Technology Policy advises on all scientific, engineering, and technological issues The Office of Administration provides support services for the Executive Office


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