Presentation on theme: "AP GOV CH 20: FOREIGN POLICY. Kinds of Foreign Policy Majoritarian foreign policy includes decisions that are believed to give widely distributed benefits."— Presentation transcript:
Kinds of Foreign Policy Majoritarian foreign policy includes decisions that are believed to give widely distributed benefits and impose widely distributed costs. Interest group politics occur when identifiable groups are pitted against one another for costs and benefits. Client politics occur when there are benefits to an identifiable group without apparent costs to any other groups.
The Constitutional and Legal Context The Constitution creates an invitation to struggle between the president and Congress over war powers. When the president seeks congressional approval for foreign policy matters, he tends to win more often than when he asks for support on domestic matters. When it comes to international diplomacy and the use of American troops, the president is strong. Compared to other nations, our president is seen as weak in terms of foreign affairs.
Evaluating the Power of the President The Supreme Court has ruled that the federal government has foreign and military policy powers beyond those specifically mentioned in the Constitution. For the most part, the Supreme Court chooses not to intervene in arguments between Congress and the Executive Branch regarding foreign or military policy.
Checks on the President Congress’s control of the “purse strings” is the most important check on the president’s foreign powers. Congress has imposed three important kinds of restrictions on the president’s freedom of action: Limitations on the president’s ability to give military or economic aid to other countries The War Powers Act: passed in 1973, requires president to report in writing to Congress within 48 hours of introducing US troops to hostile areas, requires president to receive Congressional approval of continued military presence after 60 days, etc. Intelligence oversight: Congress required CIA notify appropriate congressional committees about any proposed covert action.
The Machinery of Foreign Policy When America became a major world power during and after World War II, the president began to put foreign policy at the top of his agenda. Hundreds of agencies develop and execute policies for different reasons in different places National Security Council coordinates much of American Foreign Policy Agencies compete with one another for power and influence but President ultimately directs policy as head of state
Foreign Policy and Public Opinion Most Americans uninterested until there is a crisis Support is relative to how foreign policy is framed Broad support for greater foreign intervention from World War II onward but has dropped since Bush presidency Most Americans rally behind President in times of crisis Elites tend to want greater US involvement overseas than the general public
Cleavages Among Foreign Policy Elites Deep divisions among elites for influence and control of foreign policy Four Major Worldviews Isolationist: Non-involvement in world affairs Containment: Opposing communist expansion (During The Cold War) and aggressively opposing national enemies abroad Disengagement: A reduced, possibly significantly reduced role for US in foreign affairs Human Rights: US should intervene when global human rights are violated (Ex. Rwanda in 1994).
The Use of Military Force Majoritarian View: Use military to defend US or help allies defend themselves based on shared sacrifice Questions relating to military-industrial complex, private contractors that benefit from government defense contracts to build equipment and infrastructure Qui bono: Who is really benefiting from US intervention abroad?
The Defense Budget Biggest discretionary (optional) spending item in Federal Budget ($587 billion in 2014, nearly one TRILLION including veterans healthcare and other related expenditures) Dramatic spending increases since World War II to confront global military powers How we spend money (Ex. Weapons programs) determined by how we can best defeat potential threats Congress plays MAJOR role in getting contracts for their districts/states
What Do We Buy With Our Money? Personnel: Well-trained and equipped fighting force of men and women Big-ticket items: Major weapons and advanced fighting-craft (Ex. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter). Cost overruns common due to unforeseen problems and issues Small-Ticket items: Day to day expenditures Readiness: Items needed for immediate deployment or use of military Bases: Training installations for the military
The Structure of Defense Decision- Making Control by non-military personnel (Civilians) Secretary of Defense oversees all military and defense forces but President officially leads military Joint Chiefs of Staff, representing all 4 military branches, helps plan for their branch and advises President Services: Army, Navy, Air Force led by civilian secretaries Chain of Command: Senior officers downward