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Presentation on theme: "Bureaucracy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bureaucracy

2 What is a Bureaucracy? Is an efficient and an effective way to organize people to do work. They are found wherever there are large organizations

3 Three features 1. Hierarchical authority 2. Job specialization 3. Formalized rules

4 Facts – Federal Bureaucracy
Federal bureaucrats are career employees 15 Cabinet-level Departments 60 independent agencies 2000 –Bureaus, divisions and offices 2.8 million workers Diverse group – Rocket scientist to Janitor

5 Figure 13.2: Federal Government: Money, People, and Regulations
Source: Expenditures and employment, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2000, Nos. 483 and 582; regulations: Harold W. Stanley and Richard G. Niemi, Vital Statistics on American Politics (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1998), tables 6-12, 6-14.

6 Figure 13.3: Characteristics of Federal Civilian Employees, 1960 and 1999
Sources: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1961, ; Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2000, Nos. 450, 482, 500, 595, 1118.


8 Policy making Implementation – the process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy Ex. – law grants money for persons who are handicapped – bureaucrats will decide “handicapped”

9 Congressional Oversight
1. agency needs congressional approval 2. Congress must authorize money 3. House Appropriations Committee has special power over agencies 4. Investigate agencies by holding hearings

10 Iron Triangles Relationship & pattern of interaction that occur among an agency, interest group & congressional committee or subcommittee Ex. – AARP, the Social Security Administration, & the House subcommittee on aging – all would probably agree on the need for increased SS benefits

11 Issue networks Not as concrete as “Iron Triangles” More common today
Agency officials, members of Congress, Interest group lobbyists, lawyers, consultants and professors

12 Problems with the Bureaucracy
Red Tape Conflict Duplication Imperialism Waste


14 The text defines bureaucracy as “a large complex organization composed of appointed officials.” What does this mean? Can you envision a large, simple organization? Could such an organization accomplish anything consistently?

15 Executive Branch

16 Executive Branch of government includes President, VP, cabinet, & Agencies

17 Executive Office the President (EOP)
Umbrella agency- includes White House office OMB Council of Economic Advisers National Security Council National Drug Control Policy Office of Vice President

18 WHITE HOUSE OFFICE Closest advisors Staffs organized in 3 ways:
Pyramid structure- Eisenhower, Nixon, & Reagan Circular structure- Carter Ad hoc structure-Clinton

19 Most important of the EOP offices- White House Office

20 The National Security Council
Advises the president on domestic, foreign, and military matters that relate to the nation’s security Members – VP, Sec. Of Defense & State, director of CIA, & Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff

21 National Security Council

22 Office of Management & Budget OMB
Largest office in EOP Major task is to prepare the federal budget – President must submit to Congress in Jan, or Feb.

23 Office of National Drug Control Policy
Prepares an annual national drug control strategy Coordinates the efforts of more than 50 federal agencies fighting the war on drugs

PRESIDENT KNOWS FEW PERSONALLY MOST HAVE HAD FEDERAL EXPERIENCE Rivalry often develops between Cabinet and White House staff

25 Table 12.1: The Cabinet Departments

26 Journal – Constitutional Democracy and Bureaucratic Power
What constitutional powers does Congress have over the bureaucracy? What is the basis for the claim that the President is “Chief Administrator?”

27 Figure 13. 4: Department of Homeland Security as Proposed by George W
Figure 13.4: Department of Homeland Security as Proposed by George W. Bush, June 6, 2002 Source: Ivo H. Daalder, Statement before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, October 12, 2001.

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