2 What is a Bureaucracy?Is an efficient and an effective way to organize people to do work.They are found wherever there are large organizations
3 Three features1. Hierarchical authority2. Job specialization3. Formalized rules
4 Facts – Federal Bureaucracy Federal bureaucrats are career employees15 Cabinet-level Departments60 independent agencies2000 –Bureaus, divisions and offices2.8 million workersDiverse group – Rocket scientist to Janitor
5 Figure 13.2: Federal Government: Money, People, and Regulations Source: Expenditures and employment, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2000, Nos. 483 and 582; regulations: Harold W. Stanley and Richard G. Niemi, Vital Statistics on American Politics (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1998), tables 6-12, 6-14.
6 Figure 13.3: Characteristics of Federal Civilian Employees, 1960 and 1999 Sources: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1961, ; Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2000, Nos. 450, 482, 500, 595, 1118.
8 Policy makingImplementation – the process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracyEx. – law grants money for persons who are handicapped – bureaucrats will decide “handicapped”
9 Congressional Oversight 1. agency needs congressional approval2. Congress must authorize money3. House Appropriations Committee has special power over agencies4. Investigate agencies by holding hearings
10 Iron TrianglesRelationship & pattern of interaction that occur among an agency, interest group & congressional committee or subcommitteeEx. – AARP, the Social Security Administration, & the House subcommittee on aging – all would probably agree on the need for increased SS benefits
11 Issue networks Not as concrete as “Iron Triangles” More common today Agency officials, members of Congress, Interest group lobbyists, lawyers, consultants and professors
12 Problems with the Bureaucracy Red TapeConflictDuplicationImperialismWaste
14 The text defines bureaucracy as “a large complex organization composed of appointed officials.” What does this mean? Can you envision a large, simple organization? Could such an organization accomplish anything consistently?
16 Executive Branch of government includes President, VP, cabinet, & Agencies
17 Executive Office the President (EOP) Umbrella agency- includesWhite House officeOMBCouncil of Economic AdvisersNational Security CouncilNational Drug Control PolicyOffice of Vice President
18 WHITE HOUSE OFFICE Closest advisors Staffs organized in 3 ways: Pyramid structure- Eisenhower, Nixon, & ReaganCircular structure- CarterAd hoc structure-Clinton
19 Most important of the EOP offices- White House Office INCLUDES- CHIEF OF STAFF, COUNSEL TO THE PRESIDENT, PRESS SECRETARY, EXPERT ADVISORS
20 The National Security Council Advises the president on domestic, foreign, and military matters that relate to the nation’s securityMembers – VP, Sec. Of Defense & State, director of CIA, & Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff
26 Journal – Constitutional Democracy and Bureaucratic Power What constitutional powers does Congress have over the bureaucracy?What is the basis for the claim that the President is “Chief Administrator?”
27 Figure 13. 4: Department of Homeland Security as Proposed by George W Figure 13.4: Department of Homeland Security as Proposed by George W. Bush, June 6, 2002Source: Ivo H. Daalder, Statement before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, October 12, 2001.