This is Diana. She had a meeting yesterday. We’ll use your plans, Diana.
This is Diana and this is Alison. Today Diana met Alison. Alison asked her what they had sad. Diana told her that they would use her plans.
These are the exact words the manager said.(direct speech) We’ll use your plans, Diana. Diana told her that they would use her plans. These aren’t the speaker’s exact words, but the exact meaning of what he said. (reported speech)
a)‘I’m hungry,’ Tom said b)Tom said (that) he was hungry. Which sentence is in direct speech? Which sentence is in reported speech? We use quotation marks in direct speech, but we don’t use quotation marks in reported speech.
Introductory verbs Lisa said, ‘I have finished my work’. Lisa said to me, ‘I have finished my work.’ Lisa said (that) she had finished her work. Do we use the verb ‘say’ both in direct and reported speech? We use the verb ‘say’ both in direct and reported speech without the preposition ‘to’ when it isn’t followed by the person being spoken to.
Introductory verbs Lisa told me, ‘I have finished my work’. Lisa told me (that) she had finished her work. Do we know who Lisa spoke to? Do we use the verb ‘tell’ both in direct and reported speech? We use the verb ‘tell’ both in direct and reported speech when it is followed by the person being spoken to. The verb ‘tell’ can never be followed by the preposition ‘to’.
We use ‘say’ or ‘tell’ in certain expressions. say good morning good afternoon something one’s prayers so tell the truth a lie a secret a story the time the difference sb one’s name sb the way one from another
Reported Statements Laura told Jim that the hot dogs were delicious and that he was a great cook. Ed told Celia that he was having a great time and that he really liked their new house. ‘The hot dogs are delicious. You’re a great cook.’ I ’m having a great time. I’really like their new house.
Verb Tenses Direct speech Present Simple Present Continuous Present Perfect Past Simple Future (will) can Reported speech Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Conditional (would) could
‘We’re having a meeting tomorrow,’ Alex said. Alex said that they were having a meeting the following day. Certain words and time expressions change in reported speech.
Time expressions Direct speech tonight today this week now yesterday last night tomorrow next week two days ago Reported speech that night that day that week then, at that time the day before/the previous day the previous night the day after the following week/the next week two days before
He says, ‘I’ll do the shopping.’ He says (that) he will do the shopping. Have the tenses changed in the reported speech? When the introductory verb is in the present, future or present perfect simple, there are no changes in the verb tenses in reported speech.
‘It never snows in the Sahara,’ said the teacher. The teacher said that it never snows in the Sahara. Is it always true that it never snows in the Sahara? Do the tenses change in reported speech? When the sentence in direct speech expresses something which is always true the verb tenses do not change in reported speech.
‘He was reading his newspaper while I was watching TV’, Ruth said. Ruth said that he was reading his newspaper while she was watching TV. ‘I had finished cooking by six o’clock,’ she said. She said (that) she had finished cooking by six o’clock. Past continuous, past perfect simple and past perfect continuous do not change in reported speech.
‘John might visit Japan in the summer,’ his sister said. John’s sister said (that) he might visit Japan in the summer. Certain modal verbs such as would, could, might, should and ought to do not change in reported speech.
Reported Questions The doctor asked Mary how often she exercised. She also asked her if/whether she drank milk. How often do you exercise? Do you drink milk?
The doctor asked Mary how often she exercised. She also asked her if/whether she drank milk. Are these the doctor’s exact words? Which introductory verb do we use? Are the two sentences in question form? Do the verb tenses and pronoun change? What happens when the direct question begins with a question word? What happens when the direct question begins with an auxiliary verb?
‘Can you come to work tomorrow?’ the boss asked me. The boss asked me if/whether I could go to work the following day. When the direct question begins with a modal verb, then the reported question begins with if or whether.
Report the doctor’s questions: Do you smoke? Can you come and see me again next week? How long have you been feeling unwell? Do you have three meals a day?
Reported Commands/Requests/Suggestions The teacher suggested making some cards. She asked Ruth to sit down. She told the children to be careful with the glue. She also told them not to make a mess. Let’s make some cards. Ruth, sit down, please. Be careful with the glue. Don’t make a mess
1.‘Let’s make some cards.’ 2.She suggested making some cards. 3.‘Ruth, sit down, please.’ 4.She asked Ruth to sit down. 5.‘Be careful with the glue.’ 6.She told the children to be careful with the glue. 7.‘Don’t make a mess.’ 8.She told them not to make a mess. Which sentences contain the teacher’s exact words? Which sentence contains the teacher’s suggestion?/request?/command?