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THE REPORTED SPEECH
We use the Reported Speech:
To report what another person has said, but not using the speaker’s exact words. The structure is a little different depending on whether we want to transform a statement, question or request.
CAREFUL! Quotation marks are not used in reported speech.
Verb tenses, pronouns and some “time” and “place” words may change because the time, place and speaker may be different. The reporting verb may be in the Present or in the Past: if it is in the present tense, there are no tense changes; but if it is in the past tense, there are tense, person and place changes.
Peter said: “I haven't done my homework”
Peter said he hadn't done his homework. Peter says: “I haven't done my homework” Peter says he hasn't done his homework. Verb tense changes No tense change
Verb tense changes: Direct Speech Reported speech Present simple
Paula said: “I want to be a teacher.” Past simple Paula said (that) she wanted to be a teacher. Present continuous (am / is / are + -ing) “I am going to the cinema,” Paula said Past continuous (was /were + -ing) Paula said (that) she was going to the cinema. Paula: “I worked in Algete last year” Past Perfect ( had + Past participle) Paula said (that) she had worked in Algete the previous year Present Perfect (have/ has + past participle) Paula: “I have studied french.” Paula said (that) she had studied french. Future (will) Paula said: “I will go to Australia some day.” Conditional (would) Paula said (that) she would go Australia one day. Modal verbs: can; may; must The boss said: “You can do this job, Sarah.” Peter said: “Susan may go to university,” Peter said: “I must find a job.” Modal verbs: could; might; had to The boss said (that) Sarah could do that job. Peter said (that) Susan might go to university. Peter said (that) he had to find a job.
The next/following day
TIME AND PLACE CHANGES Direct Speech Reported Speech (a month) ago (a month) before Today Tonight That day That night These (days) Those (days) Yesterday The day before Now Then Last (month) The previous month The month before Next (month) The following (month) Tomorrow The next/following day Here There
Possessive Pronouns / Determiners Demonstrative Pronouns / Determiners
POSSESSIVES CHANGES Direct Speech Reported Speech Personal Pronouns I / you (subject) she / he we / you (subject) they me / you (object) him / her us / you (object) them Possessive Pronouns / Determiners my / your his / her mine / yours his / hers our / your their ours / yours theirs Demonstrative Pronouns / Determiners this that these those
STATEMENTS SAY VS. TELL Garfield said that Pooky was his best friend.
Garfield told Pooky that he was his best friend. With 'tell' we NEED the object (e.g. 'me', 'you', 'her'). With 'say' we CAN'T use the object (e.g. 'me', 'them', 'us').
John said that he had accidentally glued a piece of paper to his face.
John said that some pets were actually entertaining.
John told Garfield that some pets were actually entertaining.
John said that sometimes he felt like everybody hated him.
He said that he had forgotten to make a back-up copy of his brain so everything he had learned the previous semester was lost.
The teacher said that Algebra class would be important for me/him later in life because there was going to be a text six weeks from then.
PRACTICE She said, "I went to the cinema yesterday."
She said that she had gone to the cinema the previous day Tom said: “I'm writting a letter” Tom said that he was writing a letter. Marta said: “I'm very tired” Marta said that she was very tired
Karen said: “I'm having a bath”
Karen said that she was having a bath Tom said: “I bought a car yesterday” Tom said that he had bought a car the previous day Peter said: “I have already read this book” Peter said that she had already read that book He said: “I see the children every Friday” He said that he saw the children every Friday.
Laura said: “My cousins have visited Paris”
Laura said that her cousins had visited Paris The journalist said: “I am preparing my speech” The journalist said that he was preparing his speech. Harry said: “The train will live in 15 minutes” Harry said that the train would live in 15 minutes John said: “I forgot my suitcase at home last week” John said that he had forgotten his suitcase at home the previous week.
QUESTIONS Yes/No Questions If + Subject + Verb
“Is it raining?” The old lady asked if it was raining. “Do you have any stamps?” I asked them if they had any stamps. “Can I borrow your pen?” He asked her if he could borrow her pen.
Wh-word + Subject + Verb
2. Wh-Questions Wh-word + Subject + Verb “Where are you going?” He asked her where she was going. “When do you get up in the morning?” I asked him when he got up in the morning.
REQUESTS When we put an IMPERATIVE sentence into
Indirect Speech, we usually use a verb like tell, followed by a TO-INFINITIVE CLAUSE. “Give me the money.” He told /ordered me to give him the money. “Come in, please.” The manager asked me to come in.
Exercises: A – Rewrite the sentences in reported speech:
“I watch a film on Saturdays.” Caroline said… “He is my best friend.” Fred told me… “The scarf is in my bag.” Janice said… “This film wasn't very interesting” Tom told me… “This isn't my school.” Jerry said… '”We will walk for half an hour.” Yesterday Jennifer told me… “These T-shirts don't fit me.” Mike said… “We are parking our car here” They said… “It is my boyfriend's birthday party tomorrow.” Helen told me… ”I think there will be a students' meeting very soon.” He said…
B – Put into Reported Speech:
“She’s the most beautiful girl I have ever seen.” Peter said… “He didn’t come in for tea.” She said… “We’ll have to wait until she comes.” They said… “I went to the theatre with my parents yesterday night.” She said… “I know we don’t have enough money.” He said… “They tried to make him leave the office.” She said… “The farmer doesn’t know why the weather is going to change.” They said… “Carol wasn’t invited to the party.” They said… “They divided the cake into three pieces.” She said… “There was a terrible accident near my school two weeks ago.” She said… “The robbery wasn’t discovered until the evening.” They said…
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