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BM3 Introduction to English Linguistics Part II

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1 BM3 Introduction to English Linguistics Part II
Session 2: Phonetics

2 Who am I? Rebecca Carroll, M.A.
Contact options: Stud.IP A / phone All information can be found on my homepage:

3 Literature Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., Hyams, N. (2006). An Introduction to Language. 8th ed. Wadsworth. Roach, P. (2000). English Phonetics & Phonology – A Practical Course. 3rd ed. Cambridge: CUP. Ladefoged, P. (2006). A Course in Phonetics. 5th ed. Hanke, J. & Intemann, F. (2000). The Interactive Introduction to Linguistics. CD ROM. Version 2.0. München: Hueber. See Handapparat for further introductory books

4 Any Questions So Far? Organizational Concerning the lecture
Concerning this class

5 Overview: Where are we? Phonetics/ Phonology Morphology major areas
Syntax Semantics Pragmatics Applied Linguistics (Historical Linguistics, Sociolinguistics, Textlinguistics, Psycholinguistics, Neurolinguistics, Computational Linguistics, …) major areas of (theoretical) linguistics

6 Phonetics – The Art of Articulation
What organs are involved when we produce sounds? Airstream mechanisms Phonation Vocal tract Articulators Tongue

7 Phonetic Description of Sounds
Phonation Place of articulation Manner of articulation Lip rounding

8 Places of Articulation: the Vocal Tract

9 Places of Articulation:
the Tongue

10 Places of Articulation:

11 Places of Articulation: Consonantal Chart

12 Places of Articulation: Consonantal Chart
International Phonetics Association

13 Manners of Articulation
Plosive Fricative Nasal Approximant Trill Lateral Flap/ tap

14 Co-articulation and Other Nuissances
A sound can be slightly altered in anticipation of the following sound, so that the articulators have to „work less“. e.g. Lips of an unrounded vowel (or consonant) can be slightly rounded in anticipation of a labial consonant Vowels preceding a nasal are typically slightly nasalized as well Transcription issues: The length of a vowel is also transcribed /uː/ as in ‚two‘ Usually, you will also find stress marks: primary stress /ˈ/ as in /əˈbəʊt/ and secondary stress /ˌ/ as in /ˌlɪŋˈɡwɪs.tɪks/

15 Name the articulators/ vocal organs in the figures.
Your Turn! Name the articulators/ vocal organs in the figures.

16 Your turn! Listen to the sounds and write down the phonetic properties referring to Manner of articulation Place of articulation Lip rounding Tongue position (front/ back/ high/ low)

17 Your turn! Determine the sound of the following sound-descriptions and find an example word which contains that sound. e.g. /b/ as in bat voiced velar plosive unrounded close-mid front v. voiceless bilabial plosive rounded open back vowel voiced alveolar nasal neutral mid central vowel voiceless labiodental fricative rounded close-mid back v. voiced labio-velar approximant unr. open(-mid) front vowel voiced alvolar lateral rounded open-mid back v. voiceless glottal fricative unrounded close-mid front v.

18 (Brief) Description of Articulatory Actions of the Word „Ship“
Starting point: normal breathing (how?) Blade of tongue is raised against in the post-alveolar region of the hard palate; lips are slightly rounded. Lungs are compressed to produce an egressive pulmonic airstream; air escapes through a passage along the center of the tongue causing friction. 4. Vocal fold vibration begins; tongue is lowered and moved to a high front position; lips are rounded. 5. Lips are closed to form a closure in the vocal tract; air is compressed, voicing ceases. 6. Release of compressed air by opening mouth, air escapes. 7. Lung pressure is lowered and the articulators return to normal (breathing position).

19 Your turn! Try to give the same detailed description for the articulation of (one of) the following words: - this - bee - those - shoes - bang - myth Pay special attention to details such as coarticulation, nasalization, voicing, etc.


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