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CHAPTER 10 SECTION 3 “The Birth Of Political Parties”

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1 CHAPTER 10 SECTION 3 “The Birth Of Political Parties”

2 The Birth of Political Parties The framers of the Constitution had not expected the development of political parties. Political parties-organized groups of people with similar ideas about government By the early 1790’s- two parties had formed  Federalists and Republicans

3 Federalists Republicans Leaders- Alexander Hamilton John Adams Regions of Support-  Strongest in northern towns and coastal south Leaders- Thomas Jefferson James Madison Regions of Support-  Strongest in northern farming areas and southern and western backcountry Federalists Republicans

4 Federalists Republicans Beliefs- rule by wealthy & educated people Strong national gov’t Loose construction Limit states’ rights Laws to help business High tariffs Powerful national bank Pro-British Beliefs- Rule by common people Weak national gov’t Strict construction Protect states’ rights Laws to help farmers Low tariffs No national bank Pro-French Federalists Republicans

5 Election of 1796 Decision by three votes  John Adams-PRESIDENT- FEDERALIST  Thomas Jefferson-VICE PRESIDENT-REPUBLICAN Problem: the two top leaders belonged to different political parties.

6 Problems Overseas As the war between France and Britain ensued, Adams found it hard to continue a policy of neutrality. After French attacks on American ships, Adams sent diplomats to France. “XYZ Affair” – French demand bribes  Americans response: a half war  Half-war = undeclared war

7 Alien and Sedition Acts Republicans harshly criticized the Federalists. In response, Federalists in Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts. Alien Acts - gave the President power to jail or deport aliens if they were troublesome and suspected to be spies The Sedition Act - banned the writing or speech that stirred up hatred against Congress or the President. Aliens-foreigners who are not yet citizens Sedition-actions that may cause people to rebel against government

8 Fear of Tyranny Republicans feared tyranny by the federal government due to the Alien and Sedition Acts. Jefferson and Madison turned to the states to protect people’s freedoms  The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions - Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional  The Kentucky Resolution - also argued that states have the right to nullify an unconstitutional law  United Streaming (Conflicts) United Streaming (Conflicts)

9 Election of 1800 TIE!  Between Jefferson and Burr Tie breaker – the House of Representatives The Federalists wanted to embarrass Jefferson, so they voted for Burr For 6 days and 35 ballots the tie continued. Finally, Alexander Hamilton broke the tie by throwing his support to Jefferson.  Hamilton said of the two candidates, Jefferson was “not so dangerous a man”

10 Results of Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson –Republican -3 rd President Aaron Burr-Republican-Vice President In 1804, the 12 th amendment was added to the Constitution to prevent a presidential tie again.  Electors now vote separately for President and V.P.

11 Thomas Jefferson-3 rd POTUS

12 Aaron Burr –Vice President

13 The Duel On July 11, 1804 Aaron Burr(V.P.) and Alexander Hamilton(former sec. of Treasury) duel in Weehawken, N.J. Duel – when two men fight using pistols Hamilton was fatally injured in the duel by a shot from Burr’s pistol.  He died the next day.

14 Alexander Hamilton

15 Burr and Hamilton Duel

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