Presentation on theme: "The Nature of Matter can be observed and measured without changing the identity of the matter (mass, vol., color, odor, phase) Physical Properties describe."— Presentation transcript:
The Nature of Matter can be observed and measured without changing the identity of the matter (mass, vol., color, odor, phase) Physical Properties describe a substance's ability to change into another substance as a result of a chemical change Chemical Properties Matter: anything that has mass and takes up space
collection of compounds forming a living unit; smallest unit of an organism that can be considered living chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions smallest unit of matter that retains its chemical properties substance made up of only one type of atom (periodic table of elements) bonding between atoms of 1 or more elements; smallest unit of a compound
Can a substance be both an element and a molecule? molecular levels of organization from smallest to cell atom element molecule compounds cell NaCl CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 Can a substance be both a molecule and a compound? What is O 2 ? O 3 ?
+ + + + + + + - - - - - - - Nucleus Protons Neutrons Electrons Energy levels Each and every atom contains the following:
e CHNOPS CarbonNitrogenOxygen Phosphorus Sulfur Hydrogen
Each type of atom is found as an element on the periodic table C 6 carbon 12.11 Atomic Number = # of protons # of electrons = # of protons Mass Number equals Protons + Neutrons
H G hydrogen 1 1.00784 How many electrons? 1 1 How many protons? 1 atomic number How many neutrons?0 = atomic mass - + How many energy levels? 1 Try this example:
O G oxygen 8 15.9997 How many electrons? How many neutrons? 8 8 8 How many protons? 8 atomic number = atomic mass + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - How many energy levels? 2 How about this one:
BONDS Atoms are like people, they usually need interactions with other atoms to be “happy” They interact to completely fill their outer energy level shells; for most atoms this number is 8. When atoms bond together, they become compounds.
Which of the three atomic particles can move around? Right!, only the electrons of atoms can interact with electrons of other atoms because they are NOT located inside the nucleus.
Types of Bonds Covalent - atoms share their electrons. –form between 2 nonmetals Ionic –electrons are transferred between atoms creating ions (+ and -) –Form between a metal and nonmetal Hydrogen –Usually between the +H region of one atom and the – region of another atom (ex: water)
Chemical Reactions Any process in which a chemical change occurs C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O Reactants Products Chemical Equations are the shorthand way to describe a chemical reaction. They must always be balanced.
ORGANIC compounds contain a carbon-hydrogen bond (C 6 H 12 O 6, CH 4 ) INORGANIC compounds do not contain a carbon-hydrogen bonds (CO 2, H 2 O)
lipids carbohydrates proteins nucleic acids water most important inorganic compound in living things most cellular processes take place in water solutions excellent solvent (substances dissolve in water) CO 2
come in two basic forms: monomers and polymers Most Organic Molecules mono meaning ONE poly meaning MANY May also have di…. meaning TWO
are organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ratio 1:2:1 (carbon:hydrogen:oxygen) Carbohydrates are made by plants (autotrophs) are the body’s primary source of energy Contain 4 calories per gram of energy are made of monomers called monosaccharides
Glucose is a monosaccharide. C6C6 H 12 O6O6O6O6 Monosaccharides (simple sugars) are easily identified by their sweet taste. Other monosaccharides: fructose (fruit sugar) galactose (milk sugar). H CH2OHCH2OH O O H H H H OHOH OHOH OHOH H HH OHOH OHOH C C C C C Note the ring shape of the molecule.
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates made of long chains of monosaccharides. Starches (bread, cereals, and pastas) and cellulose (plant cell walls) are common sources of complex carbs. Sucrose (table sugar) is an example of a sugar with only two monosaccharides. O CH2OHCH2OH H O O H H H H OHOH OHOH OHOH H HH OHOH CH2OHCH2OH H H H OHOH H O O O HH OHOH OHOH H H CH2OHCH2OH H O O H H H H OHOH OHOH OHOH H HH OHOH C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C
How do monosaccharides link together to form a polysaccharide? Condensation joins the monomers together to form the polymer, releasing water in the process (aka dehydration synthesis) O CH2OHCH2OH H O O H H H H OHOH OHOH OHOH H HH OHOH CH2OHCH2OH H H H OHOH H O O O HH OHOH OHOH H H CH2OHCH2OH H O O H H H H OHOH OHOH OHOH H HH OHOH C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C H CH2OHCH2OH O O H H H H OHOH OHOH OHOH H HH OHOH OHOH C C C C C H CH2OHCH2OH O O H H H H OHOH OHOH OHOH H HH OHOH OHOH C C C C C H CH2OHCH2OH O O H H H H OHOH OHOH OHOH H HH OHOH OHOH C C C C C =
How do polysaccharides get broken down into monosaccharides? Hydrolysis splits a polysaccharide into its individual monomers H CH2OHCH2OH O O H H H H OHOH OHOH OHOH H HH OHOH OHOH C C C C C H CH2OHCH2OH O O H H H H OHOH OHOH OHOH H HH OHOH OHOH C C C C C H CH2OHCH2OH O O H H H H OHOH OHOH OHOH H HH OHOH OHOH C C C C C O CH2OHCH2OH H O O H H H H OHOH OHOH OHOH H HH OHOH CH2OHCH2OH H H H OHOH H O O O HH OHOH OHOH H H CH2OHCH2OH H O O H H H H OHOH OHOH OHOH H HH OHOH C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C =
Contain 9 calories per gram of energy function in hormones and cell membrane and for energy storage examples: fats, oils, waxes contain C, H, O not soluble in water classified as saturated or unsaturated glycerol also steroids (serve as chemical messengers)
Note the molecular structure’s “E” shape C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H O O C H C H C H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H O O C O O C H H O O C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H O O C C H C H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H O O C C H C H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H made up of glycerolfatty acidsand
Enzymes are proteins which function to control the rate of chemical reactions. complex organic compounds made up of amino acids, needed for the body to function properly examples: muscles, hair, cartilage, nails contain C, O, H, N and usually S 3D protein structure contain 4 calories per gram of energy
an amino group are made up of and an “R” group which varies in the different amino acids a carboxyl group H H N C H R O OHOH C C H HH H H NC H O OHOH C C OHOH HH H H NC H O OHOH C Alanine Serine
Levels of protein structure Primary Primary – sequence of amino acids Secondary – coils and folds due to H- bonding Tertiary – interactions between side chains Quaternary – interactions between 2 or more polypeptides
very large linear molecules examples: DNA and RNA contain C, H, N, O, P sugar phosphate nitrogen base nucleotide store genetic information, help to make proteins made up of nucleotides containing a sugar, phosphate and a N-base DNA molecule sugar phosphate nitrogen base
What is the monomer (subunit) for carbohydrates? What are the functions of carbohydrates? Name examples of carbohydrates. monosaccharide (simple sugars) energy storage (short-term), structure or support glucose, starch, cellulose
What are the molecules that make up lipids? What are the functions of lipids? Name examples of lipids. glycerol and fatty acids energy storage (long-term), make up the cell membrane and hormones body fat, oils, waxes
What is the monomer (subunit) for protein? What are the functions of protein? Name examples of proteins. amino acids structure or support; enzymes speed up chemical reactions muscles, hair, cartilage, nails image credit: U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program, http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis.
What is the monomer (subunit) for nucleic acids? What are the functions of nucleic acids? Name examples of nucleic acid. nucleotides store genetic information, help to make proteins DNA, RNA What are the compounds in a nucleotide? sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base