Presentation on theme: "Unit #2 – Biological Molecules: What are the building blocks of life?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit #2 – Biological Molecules: What are the building blocks of life? On the following slides, the yellow sections are the main points; summarize the slides in your notebooks. Underlined words = vocabulary!
2 K W L List the things you know about the 4 biomolecules: CarbohydratesLipidsProteins andNucleic AcidsWReview the difference between inorganic and organic molecules.The meaning of monomer and polymer.The structure and function of the 4 biomolecules.Role of enzymes in cells and the body.L
4 Types of Compounds Txbk Ref pg. 157-158 Organic compounds - contain the element carbon (C) and are found in living things; with four valence electrons, carbon atoms can bond with numerous other atoms to create complex compounds.Inorganic compounds without carbon and are associated with non-living things.
5 Examples of Inorganic Molecules CO2watermost important inorganic compound in living thingsmost cellular processes take place in water solutionsORGANIC MOLECULESlipid, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, proteinINORGANIC MOLECULESCO2water:most important inorganic compound in living thingsmost cellular processes take place in water solutionexcellent solvent (substances dissolve in water)excellent solvent(many substances dissolve in water)
6 Monomers vs. Polymers Txbk Ref pg. 158 The biomolecules found in living things are composed of hundreds of atoms, sometimes more (AKA macromolecules).Cells create these by joining smaller molecules in to chains called polymers. [Greek polys = many, meros = part]A polymer is a large molecule composed of identical subunits called monomers.
7 Organic Molecules lipids proteins nucleic acids carbohydrates lipid, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, proteinINORGANIC MOLECULESCO2water:most important inorganic compound in living thingsmost cellular processes take place in water solutionexcellent solvent (substances dissolve in water)carbohydrates
8 Carbohydrates Txbk Ref pg. 158-159 Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the ratio 1:2:1 (C:H:O)are made by plants (autotrophs)are the body’s primary source of energyare made of monomers called monosaccharides (meaning “1” + “sugar”).Two basic forms:MonosaccharidesPolysaccharides
9 Carbohydrates Cont.Monosaccharides (simple sugars) are easily identified by their sweet taste.Glucose is a monosaccharide [C6H12O6].Other monosaccharides: galactose (milk sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar)Note the ring shape of the molecule.
10 Carbohydrates Cont.Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates made of long chains of monosaccharides.Starches (found in roots [potatoes] and other tissues in plants)Cellulose (found in plant cell walls)Glycogen (found in the liver and muscles of animals)Sucrose (table sugar) is an example of a sugar with only two monosaccharides, a disaccharide.
12 Carbohydrates Review Remember that monomers make up polymers. What is the monomer (or subunit) for complex carbohydrates?Observe the diagram and turn and talk to your neighbor to answer the question.
13 Lipids Txbk Ref pg. 160Chemically diverse organic compounds; contain C, H, O atomsFound within the cell membrane; used for long-term energy storageClassified as hydrophobic (insoluble in water) Insoluble in waterTwo basic forms:Unsaturatedliquid at room temperaturew/ double bondsSaturatedsolid at room temp, unhealthyEX fats, waxes, also steroids (serve as chemical messengers)
14 Lipids Cont. Note the molecular structure “E” shape Made up of: glycerol+fatty acids chainsCHOCHOCHOLIPIDSmade up ofglycerol (boxes the glycerol portion of the molecule)and fatty acids (boxes the fatty acids portions of the molecule)Note the molecular structure’s “E” shape (highlights the “E” shape)
16 Lipids ReviewThe fatty acid chain of the lipids is often referred to as a hydrocarbon chain. Why?Observe the diagram and turn and talk to your neighbor to answer the question.
17 Proteins Txbk Ref pgVery complex organic compounds made up of linked amino acids (monomer); contain C, O, H, N and usually S atomsAKA polypeptideNeeded for essential life activities in the bodyfight diseasetransport substances
18 Proteins Cont. An enzyme is a protein which functions to increase rates in chemical reactions.Proteins are found in muscles, hair, cartilage, nails.
19 Proteins Cont. a carboxyl group are made up of: an amino group and an “R” group which varies in the different amino acidsPROTEINSare made up ofan amino group (boxes the amino group in a general molecular structure)a carboxyl group (boxes the carboxyl group in a general molecular structure)and an “R” group which varies in the different amino acids (boxes the R group in a general molecular structure)(shows an alanine molecular structure)(shows a serine molecular structure)
21 Proteins ReviewThere are 20 naturally-occurring amino acids, and each one only varies in the structure of the R side chain.Two amino acids are shown in the diagram. What are the R side chains in each?Talk to your neighbor to answer the question.
22 Nucleic Acids Txbk Ref pg. 163 Large, linear macromolecules made of linked nucleotides (monomer); contain H, O, C, N, and P atoms.Store genetic information in living thingsHelps carry instructions for building proteinsEX DNA and RNA
23 Nucleic Acids Cont. Nucleotides contain: A sugar A phosphate A nitrogenous base, of which there are four:AdenineThymineCytosineGuanine
24 Chemical Reactions Txbk Ref pg. 147-148 A chemical reaction is a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set the breaking of chemical bonds and recombination of atoms in to different substances.When you eat a burger, your body has to process and change the carbohydrates and other molecules into parts the body can use.Products are the items up end up with(the right of the arrow).Reactants are the items that you begin with (the left of the arrow).
25 Enzymes Txbk Ref pg ,An enzyme [typically ending in –ASE] is a protein that acts as a biological catalyst. They work in cells to speed up chemical reactions.The enzyme attaches to a specific substrate and react to produce products.Examine the graphic to the right which shows the digestion of proteins in the intestine. Specific enzymes work to break the peptide bonds between amino acids and then free amino acids can enter the blood stream.
26 Enzymes Cont. Factors that can affect enzymes are: Temperature pH ConcentrationTemperature: all enzymes have an optimal temp they work best atpH: acidity/alkalinity can increase or decrease the function of an enzymeConcentration: Increasing the concentration of the enzyme can increase the rate of the chemical reaction
27 The Lock & Key Model Txbk Ref Figure 6.23 pg. 162 Specific enzymes will only work on specific substrates; enzymes attach at the “active site” that matches the substrate .EXSalivary amylase attaches to starchMaltase attaches to the sugar maltosePepsin attaches to proteins
29 K W L List the things you know about the 4 biomolecules: CarbohydratesLipidsProteins andNucleic AcidsWReview the difference between inorganic and organic molecules.The meaning of monomer and polymer.The structure and function of the 4 biomolecules.Role of enzymes in cells and the body.LList the things you have learned during this unit.