Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry The Chemistry of Life. Basic Chemistry Element – pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom Ex. Hydrogen (H), Helium (He)"— Presentation transcript:
Basic Chemistry Element – pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom Ex. Hydrogen (H), Helium (He) It cannot be broken down into simpler substances Found on the Periodic Table
Basic Chemistry Molecule – substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions Examples: H 2 0, CO 2, HCl Properties are different than the elements that make it up
Basic Chemistry The atoms in a molecule are held together by CHEMICAL BONDS BOND
What do the molecules below have in common? What is different about the molecules?
Organic Molecules Organic Chemistry - study of carbon containing compounds Contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) and are associated with living things EX: C 6 H 12 O 6 is glucose, an organic molecule
Macromolecules Macromolecules – “Giant molecules” or “biomolecules” made from smaller molecules Formed by a process known as dehydration synthesis, in which large compounds are built by joining smaller ones together. The smaller units, or monomers, join chemically together to form polymers.
Macromolecules/Biomolecules Four groups of macromolecules found in ALL living things are: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates - Compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms (C, H, O) MONOMERS are simple sugars called monosaccharides EX) honey, glucose POLYMERS are complex carbs called polysaccharides Ex) potato, pasta, bread, starch, cellulose
Uses of Carbohydrates Living things use carbohydrates as: 1. Quick source of energy (starches and sugars) 2. Plants and some animals also use carbohydrates for structural purposes (cellulose)
LIPIDS FATS and OILS – long term energy storage and insulation Butter, olive oil WAXES – repel or retain water fruits, leaves, stems of plants
LIPIDS PHOSPHOLIPIDS – makes up the cell membrane of all cells STEROIDS – helps to control cell function
Structure of Lipids Made from carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms MONOMERS: Glycerol molecule + 3 fatty acids Not soluble in water
PROTEINS Proteins - Macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (C, H, O, N) MONOMERS are called amino acids (there are 20 different amino acids) POLYMERS are called polypeptides
Functions of Proteins Each protein has a specific role. 1. Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes. 2. Some are used to form bones and muscles and other structural molecules. 3. Others transport substances into or out of cells 4. Some help to fight disease.
Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids - Macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus (C, H, O, N, P) Monomers: Made up of repeating units called nucleotides Each nucleotide contains: 1. 5-Carbon Sugar 2. Phosphate Group 3. Nitrogenous Base
Nucleic Acids Two Kinds of Nucleic Acids POLYMERS: 1. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Carries instructions on how to make proteins 2. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Carries instructions that control the activities of a cell
Nucleic Acids Function of Nucleic Acids: Store genetic information Transmit genetic information